IX. Transition Zones of the Vertebral Column Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in IX. Transition Zones of the Vertebral Column Deck (62)
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1

What is the name given to segments that lie in the transition zones of the vertebral column?

transition vertebrae

2

What are the transition zones of the vertebral column?

occipitocervical, cervicothoracic, thoracolumbar, lumbosacral, and sacrococcygeal zones

3

How are specific segments within a transition zone identified?

by adjacent region of the segment, process of transition, and specific segment (occipitalization of C1)

4

What does the suffix "ization" refer to?

in the process of becoming like

5

What are the possible transition zone - segmental combinations?

cervicalization of occiput
occipitalizaiton of C1
dorsalization of C7
cervicalization of T1
lumbarization of T12
dorsalization of L1
sacralization of L5
lumbarization of S1
coccygealization of S5
sacralization of Co1

6

What is/are the characteristic(s) of cervicalization of occiput?

an increase in occipital bone size, formation of new or larger lines on the occipital bone

7

What is/are the characteristic(s) of occipitalization of C1?

the atlas may be partially or completely fused to the occiput

8

What is another way of implying occipitalization of C1?

atlas assimilation

9

What is the incidence of occipitalization of C1?

0.1% to 0.8%

10

When do the centers of ossification for the odontoid process first appear?

during the last trimester in utero

11

When do the bilateral ossification centers for the odontoid process fuse?

at or shortly after birth

12

What joint forms between the odontoid process ossification centers and the centrum of C2?

the subdental synchondrosis

13

What joint classification is present between the C2 odontoid process and centrum?

amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

14

Ossification between the odontoid process and centrum joint of C2 first appears at what age?

4 years old

15

A joint between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 is last identified at what age?

7 years old

16

What is the name given to the condition in which the joint formed between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 persists beyond age 7?

os odontoideum

17

What is an os odontoideum?

a persistence beyond age 7 of the joint between the centrum and odontoid process centers of ossification

18

What is the name given to the joint formed between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 which is still evident beyond age 7?

persistent subdental synchondrosis

19

What is the name given to the joint formed between the tip of the dens and the odontoid process centers of ossification?

tip of the dens synchondrosis

20

What is the classification of the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification?

amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

21

At what age will the tip of the dens center of ossification appear?

sometime in early adolescence

22

Based on the age of appearance, how is the tip of the dens center of ossification classified?

secondary center of ossification

23

At what age will the tip of the dens fuse with the odontoid process?

before age 12

24

If the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification persists beyond age 12, what is the condition called?

terminal ossicle

25

What is terminal ossicle?

a persistence beyond age 12 of the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification

26

What is a basilar impression?

persistence of the nonunoin of the basilar and condylar parts of the chondrocranium such that the cartilage deforms due to the weight of the brain

27

What is basilar invagination?

the upper cervical spine appears to be invaginated into the skull on x-ray analysis

28

What is/are the characteristic(s) of dorsalization of C7?

the addition of a rib and changes in superior articular facet orientation are typical

29

What is the incidence of rib-related changes following dorsalization of C7?

from 0.5% to 2.5% of the population

30

What genetic patterns are suggested in dorsalization of C7?

chromosome karyotypes are abnormal, family inheritance patterns are common, it is associated with a dominant inheritance pattern