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Flashcards in {{{{{{imaging in cancer mw %}}}}}}}}}}}}}} Deck (10)
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What are the conventional diagnostic modalities?

Barium studies 

Endoscopy and biopsy


What is barium studies?

  • Barium sulphate is a radio-opaque contrast used for outlining the gastro-intestinal tract.
  • The high atomic number of barium absorbs more x-ray photons than surrounding tissues. 
  •  Barium appears white on the radiograph.


What are the different types of barium studies?

  • Barium swallow and meal - oesophagus, stomach and duodenum.
  • Barium follow-through or small bowel study - small bowel
  •  Barium enema - large bowel


What is the radiation dose in barium studies?

  1.  Barium meal =1.5 mSv  
  2. Barium enema =  7.0 mSv  


When do you use cross-sectional imaging?

  • CT, MRI & PET
  • Initial diagnosis and staging of disease 
  • Monitoring response to treatment
  • Evaluation of residual mass after treatment 
  • Recognition of complications of treatment 
  • When there is concern for disease relapse


What is computed technology?

  •  X-rays produce a digital image of a slice of tissue, usually in an axial plane using computing to create the image


Name the types of  contrast agens used in CT imaging?

 Oral - dilute iodine based contrast (gastrografin) can be given to outline the gastrointestinal tract

Intravenous - iodine based contrast (Omnipaque) injected into the veins to demonstrate blood vessels or the vascularity of different tissues.


Which two stages is CT imaging used in cancer?

  1.  Diagnosis i.e lung tumour and pancreatic tumour
  2. Staging : assess local spread    e.g. lymph nodes or assess distant spread e.g. liver, lung, bone or brain metastase


What is Magnetic Resonance Imaging?


 Strong magnetic field aligns protons (H+) in the body in one direction

 Radiofrequency pulse displaces protons and images created by displaying time taken for protons to “relax” back to the original alignment


Name some features of MRI?

  • Excellent bone soft tissue detail
  • Vessels can be demonstrated
  • Brain, spine and musculoskeletal
  • abdomen and pelvis 
  • cardiac imaging