Tumour pathology 3 % + Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tumour pathology 3 % + Deck (10)
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what are the local Effects Of
Benign Tumours?►




what are the Local Effects Of
Malignant Tumours? ►



•Tissue destruction–Ulceration/infection

•Bleeding–Anaemia or Haemorrhage

•Pain –Pressure on nerves  or Perineural infiltration or Bone pain from pathological fractures

•Effects of treatment



what are the Systemic Effects Of Malignant Tumours?

•Weight loss-cancer (cachexia)

•Secretion of hormones



•Paraneoplastic syndromes

•Effects of treatment


Define normal and abnormal hormone secretion in sytematic effects of cancer?

  • “Normal” - produced by tumours of endocrine organ,but abnormal control of hormone production/secretion
  • “Abnormal”/inappropriate - produced by tumour from an organ that does not normally produce hormone


what is the significance of early detection in cancer?

Reduce/prevent morbidity/mortality

•Detection at pre-invasive stage

–Identification of dysplasia/intraepithelial neoplasia


what is Dysplasia?

Pre-malignant change

Earliest change in the process of malignancy that can be visualised.

•Identified in epithelium

No invasion

•But can progress to cancer




what are the features of Dysplasia?

•Disorganisation of cells

–Increased nuclear size

–Increased mitotic activity

–Abnormal mitoses

•Grading of dysplasia

–High grade

–Low grade

No invasion


Examples of inappropriate secretion of hormones for lung cancer

  • ACTH
  • ADH


Paraneoplastic syndrome

  •  a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.
  • In contrast, these phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (such as hormones or cytokines) excreted by tumor cells or by an immune response against the tumor.


Intraepithelial neoplasia►

Intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) is the development of a benign neoplasia or high-grade dysplasia in an epithelium.

Neoplasia: the presence or formation of new, abnormal growth of tissue.