Tumour pathology 2 + Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tumour pathology 2 + Deck (18)
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1

Properties of cancer cells

•Altered cellular function

•Abnormal morphology

•Cells capable of independent growth

•Tumour biomarkers.

Loss of tumour suppressor genes.

Gain of function of oncogenes

2

what is the clinical use of Alpha-fetoprotein as a tumour biomarker?

•Teratoma of testis

•Hepatocellular carcinoma (Liver)

3

what is the clinical use of Carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) as a tumour biomarker?

•Colorectal cancer

4

what is the clinical use of Oestrogen receptor as a tumour biomarker?

•Breast cancer

5

what is the clinical use of Prostate specific antigen as tumour biomarker?

•Prostate cancer

6

Biomarker  - Tumour table

what are the clinically useful Predictive biomarkers?

7

How is tumour growth balanced

•Angiogenesis

•Apoptosis

8

Tumour Angiogenesis

New blood vessel formation by tumours

•Required to sustain tumour growth

•Provides route for release of tumour cells into circulation

•More blood vessels in a tumour = poorer prognosis

9

Apoptosis

•Mechanism of programmed single cell death

Active cell process

Regulates tumour growth

•Involved in response to chemotherapy  and radiotherapy

10

Mode of cancer spread

•Local spread

•Lymphatic spread

•Blood spread

Trans-coelomic spread (body cavities)

11

how does cancer spread locally?►

Malignant tumour invasion of connective tissue and then Invasion into lymph/blood vessels.

12

how does cancer spread via Blood?►

  • Adherence of tumour cells to blood vessels
  • Invasion from blood vessels
  • Invasion into tissue 
  • Formation of metastasis.

13

how the cancer spread via Trans-coelomic? ►

•Special form of local spread

•Spread of tumour cells across body cavities e.g. pleural or peritoneal cavities

•Tumours of lung, stomach, colon and ovary show trans-coelomic spread

14

what are the common sites of metastasis?

•Liver

•Lung

•Brain

•Bone –Axial skeleton

•Adrenal gland

•Omentum (a layer of peritoneum that surrounds abdominal organs)

15

what are the Uncommon Sites
Of Metastasis?

•Spleen

•Kidney

•Skeletal muscle

•Heart

16

Table

17

Metastises 

Tumour  ⇒Tissue

•Breast  Bone

•Prostate ⇒ Bone

•Colorectal ⇒  Liver

•Ovary   Omentum

18

Tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes

Loss of tumour suppressor genes

•Adenomatous polyposis (APC)

•Retinoblastoma (Rb)

•BRCA1

Gain of function of oncogenes

•B-raf

•Cyclin D1

•ErbB2

•Myc

•K-ras, N-ras