Properties of cancer cells
•Altered cellular function
•Cells capable of independent growth
•Loss of tumour suppressor genes.
•Gain of function of oncogenes
what is the clinical use of Alpha-fetoprotein as a tumour biomarker?
•Teratoma of testis
•Hepatocellular carcinoma (Liver)
what is the clinical use of Carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) as a tumour biomarker?
what is the clinical use of Oestrogen receptor as a tumour biomarker?
what is the clinical use of Prostate specific antigen as tumour biomarker?
Biomarker - Tumour table
what are the clinically useful Predictive biomarkers?
How is tumour growth balanced
•New blood vessel formation by tumours
•Required to sustain tumour growth
•Provides route for release of tumour cells into circulation
•More blood vessels in a tumour = poorer prognosis
•Mechanism of programmed single cell death
•Active cell process
•Regulates tumour growth
•Involved in response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy
Mode of cancer spread
•Trans-coelomic spread (body cavities)
how does cancer spread locally?►
Malignant tumour invasion of connective tissue and then Invasion into lymph/blood vessels.
how does cancer spread via Blood?►
Adherence of tumour cells to blood vessels
- Invasion from blood vessels
- Invasion into tissue
- Formation of metastasis.
how the cancer spread via Trans-coelomic? ►
•Special form of local spread
•Spread of tumour cells across body cavities e.g. pleural or peritoneal cavities
•Tumours of lung, stomach, colon and ovary show trans-coelomic spread
what are the common sites of metastasis?
•Bone –Axial skeleton
•Omentum (a layer of peritoneum that surrounds abdominal organs)
what are the Uncommon Sites
•Breast ⇒ Bone
•Prostate ⇒ Bone
•Colorectal ⇒ Liver
•Ovary ⇒ Omentum
Tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes
Loss of tumour suppressor genes
•Adenomatous polyposis (APC)
Gain of function of oncogenes