Immune Response & Inflammation (Part 2)-Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immune Response & Inflammation (Part 2)-Exam 3 Deck (93)
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1

What type of a response is inflammation?

Non-specific; response to a cute is the same as a burn/radiation/infection, etc.

2

What are some causes of tissue damage?

Pathogens, abrasions, chemical irritations, distortion/cell disturbance, extreme temps

3

How does the body response to tissue damage?

Inflammation

4

What are 4 signs of inflammation?

Redness
Pain
Heat
Swelling

5

What is the goal of inflammation?

To dispose of microbes/ toxins/ foreign materials; prevents the spread, prepares for repair (restores homeostasis)

6

Where does inflammation occur?

At the sight of injury

7

What are the 3 stages of inflammation?

1. Vasodilation: Increases permeability of blood vessels
2. Emigration: Movement of phagocytes from blood to interstitial fluid
3. Tissue repair

8

What is the purpose of increased permeability?

Allows antibodies and clotting factors to leave the blood

9

What is the purpose of vasodilation?

Allows more blood into an area
Helps remove microbial toxins and dead cells

10

What are some factors that cause vasodilation and increased permeability?

Histamine, Kinins, prostaglandins, leukotriens, complement

11

What cells release histamine?

Mast cells

12

What simulate the release of histamine in the blood?

Basophils and platelets

13

What does histamine cause?

Dilation and increased permeability

14

What are kinins? What do they do?

Polypeptides; induce vasodilation and increase permeability; act as chemotaxic agent phagocytes

15

What's an example of a kinin?

Bradykinin

16

What are prostaglandins? What releases them? What do they stimulate?

Lipids, released by damaged cells, stimulate emigration of phagocytes

17

What are leukotrienes? What do they do?

Basophils and mast cells produce; increase permeability

18

What does complement do?

Stimulate histamine release, attract neutrophils, promote phagocytosis

19

What do clotting factors moving into the tissues initiate?

Clotting Cascade; fibrinogen converted to fibrin and forms fibrin mesh

20

What is the function of the fibrin mesh?

Localizes and traps invading organisms; blocks the spread of organism

21

How long after the start of the inflammatory process of phagocytes start to appear?

Phagocytes appear

22

What do neutrophils do during inflammation?

Stick to the blood vessel wall with increased blood flow; squeeze through blood vessel wall to tissues "emigration"
Depends on chemotaxis

23

Neutrophils attempt to destroy via what process?

Phagocytosis

24

What cells follow neutrophils? What do they transform into?

Monocytes; transform into macrophages

25

Which is a more potent phagocyte: neutrophils or macrophages?

Macrophages are more potent phagocytes than neutrophils; macrophages eventually die

26

What is left behind when macrophages die?

Dead cells and fluid (pus)

27

What are 4 signs of inflammation due to vasodilation and increased permeability?

Heat, redness, swelling, pain

28

Why is there redness in inflammation?

Large amount of blood in damaged area
Local temperatures increase
Metabolic reactions speed up
More heat is released

29

What is associated with swelling?

Increased permeability, more fluid in the area

30

Why is there pain during inflammation?

Neuron injury or increased pressure (edema)