Flashcards in Immune Response & Inflammation (Part 2)-Exam 3 Deck (93)
What type of a response is inflammation?
Non-specific; response to a cute is the same as a burn/radiation/infection, etc.
What are some causes of tissue damage?
Pathogens, abrasions, chemical irritations, distortion/cell disturbance, extreme temps
How does the body response to tissue damage?
What are 4 signs of inflammation?
What is the goal of inflammation?
To dispose of microbes/ toxins/ foreign materials; prevents the spread, prepares for repair (restores homeostasis)
Where does inflammation occur?
At the sight of injury
What are the 3 stages of inflammation?
1. Vasodilation: Increases permeability of blood vessels
2. Emigration: Movement of phagocytes from blood to interstitial fluid
3. Tissue repair
What is the purpose of increased permeability?
Allows antibodies and clotting factors to leave the blood
What is the purpose of vasodilation?
Allows more blood into an area
Helps remove microbial toxins and dead cells
What are some factors that cause vasodilation and increased permeability?
Histamine, Kinins, prostaglandins, leukotriens, complement
What cells release histamine?
What simulate the release of histamine in the blood?
Basophils and platelets
What does histamine cause?
Dilation and increased permeability
What are kinins? What do they do?
Polypeptides; induce vasodilation and increase permeability; act as chemotaxic agent phagocytes
What's an example of a kinin?
What are prostaglandins? What releases them? What do they stimulate?
Lipids, released by damaged cells, stimulate emigration of phagocytes
What are leukotrienes? What do they do?
Basophils and mast cells produce; increase permeability
What does complement do?
Stimulate histamine release, attract neutrophils, promote phagocytosis
What do clotting factors moving into the tissues initiate?
Clotting Cascade; fibrinogen converted to fibrin and forms fibrin mesh
What is the function of the fibrin mesh?
Localizes and traps invading organisms; blocks the spread of organism
How long after the start of the inflammatory process of phagocytes start to appear?
What do neutrophils do during inflammation?
Stick to the blood vessel wall with increased blood flow; squeeze through blood vessel wall to tissues "emigration"
Depends on chemotaxis
Neutrophils attempt to destroy via what process?
What cells follow neutrophils? What do they transform into?
Monocytes; transform into macrophages
Which is a more potent phagocyte: neutrophils or macrophages?
Macrophages are more potent phagocytes than neutrophils; macrophages eventually die
What is left behind when macrophages die?
Dead cells and fluid (pus)
What are 4 signs of inflammation due to vasodilation and increased permeability?
Heat, redness, swelling, pain
Why is there redness in inflammation?
Large amount of blood in damaged area
Local temperatures increase
Metabolic reactions speed up
More heat is released
What is associated with swelling?
Increased permeability, more fluid in the area