Blood Surface Interactions (Part 2)- Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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0

What are 3 major types of blood cells?

RBCs, WBCs, platelets

1

What do erythrocytes do?

Uptake, transport, removal oxygen and carbon dioxide

2

What are two main types of leukocytes?

Granulocytes
Agranulocytes

3

What are 3 types of granulocytes?

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

4

What percent are neutrophils? What do they do?

60-70%; destroy bacterial and phagocytosis

5

What percent are eosinophils? What do they do?

2-4%; destroy complex products antigen-antibody reactions

6

WHat percent are basophils? What do they do?

0.5-1%; release histamine and heparin; vasodilation

7

What are two types of agranulocytes?

Monocytes
Lymphocytes

8

What percent are monocytes? What do they do?

3-8%; transform into tissue macrophages

9

What percent are lymphocytes? What do they do?

20-25%; attach destroy/ deactivate bacteria, viruses, other foreign cells, acquired immune response

10

What are platelets (thrombocytes) involved in?

Coagulation

11

What are the 5 major cell types involved in blood surface interactions?

Platelets
Neutrophils
Monocytes
Lymphocytes
Endothelial Cells

12

Platelets- Initial/Early Activation

Surface contact with ECC
Heparin (increases sensitivity)
Circulating thrombin (agonist, probably initial activator)
Platelet-activating (PAF)

13

Platelets - Late Activation

Activated Complement (C5b - C9)
Plasmin
Hypothermia
Interleukin-6
Cathepsin G
Serotonin
Epinephrine

14

Platelets respond to activation with immediate _____.

shape change

15

What shape changes do platelets in response to activation?

Express pseudo pods
Express surface receptors (GP2b/3a and GP1b)
Secrete receptors from granules (P-selectin)

16

5 actions of platelets responding to activation

1) Immediate shape change
2) GP2b/3a receptors bind to surface adsorbed fibrinogen (use fibrinogen as bridge to bind to other platelets)
3) P-selectin receptors bind to monocytes & neutrophils to form aggregates
4) Some platelets break off forming emboli
5) Some platelets release a variety of chemicals and proteins

17

Examples of the variety of chemicals and proteins that platelets release in response to activation

thromboxane-A2
platelet factor 4
beta-thromboglobulin
serotonin

18

_____ = very strong activation

neutrophils

19

Principal agonists of neutrophil

Kallikrein and C5a

20

Other neutrophil agonists are:

Factor 7a
Heparin
MAC
Interleukin 1 Beta
Interleukin 8
TNF

21

Events in neutrophil activation

*Release contents of granules
*Express MAC-1 (CD11b/CD18) & CD11c/CD18 receptors
*Express L-selectin receptor

22

Lysosomal enzymes, elastase, myeloperoxidase, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, hypochlorous acid, hypobromous acid, acid hydrolyses, and collagenases are contents released from _____ during neutrophils activation.

Granules

23

What does L-selectin receptor bing with?

P-selectin expressed by endothelial cells and platelets

24

What plays a major role in ischemia-reperfusion injury and responsible for much of inflammatory response associated with bypass?

Neutrophils

25

Monocyte activation is _____ during CPB.

slow

26

Monocyte activation is slow activation during CPB by (3):

C5a
Thrombin
Bradykinin

27

Monocytes are activated in ____ and ____.

wound and circuit

28

Monocytes form conjugates with platelets via ____ and express ____.

GMP-140
Tissue Factor

29

Delayed increase in tissue factor is seen ____ post CPB

20 hours