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Flashcards in Immune Therapies Deck (45)
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why manipulate the immune response

• Promote protective immune responses
○ Vaccination
○ Fight tumours
○ Treat immunocompromised patients

• Suppress unwanted immune responses
○ Chronic inflammation
○ Autoimmunity
○ Allergy


why vaccinate?

• Most effective strategy to prevent infectious disease
• Promote human health
• Primary aim to induce immunity in individuals
• Successful programmes protect entire communities and populations


what is included in the UK vaccination programme

- Pertussis (whooping cough)
- Diphtheria
- Tetanus
- Polio
- Hib
- Hepatitis B
- MenB and MenC
- Rotavirus
- Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)
- Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)
- Seasonal flu
- Human papilloma virus (HPV)
○ Now offered to both boys and girls


what is included in the 6 in 1 vaccine

- Pertussis (whooping cough)
- Diphtheria
- Tetanus
- Polio
- Hib
- Hepatitis B


name the stages in the evolution of immunisation programme

- stage 1 = pre-vaccine
eg corona virus

- stage 2 = increasing coverage

- stage 3 = loss of confidence
eg MMR

- stage 4 = resumption of confidence

- stage 5 = eradication
Eg smallpox


name a case when there was loss of the public trust in vaccines

paper published showing incorrect relationship between MMR vaccine and autism

caused an increase in the incidences of measles, mumps and rubella


how do vaccines work

replication immunity from natural infection without the illness / disease

exposing our immune system to disease causing microbial antigens without causing disease


what is the primary aim of vaccination

stimulate adaptive immunity
generate long term immunological memory


what is the most important goal of vaccination

production of high affinity IgG


what is the primary response to natural infection

○ Low specificity IgM produced first

○ High specificity IgG takes longer
Requires T cell help


what is the secondary response to natural infection

○ More rapid

○ More effective

§ Highly specificity IgG produced by long-lived plasma cells


what are virulence factors

disease causing factors expressed by microbes


how does the microbial challenge affect the host response

antigens and virulence factors act on the host


how does the host response affect the microbial challenge

innate and adaptive immune response attacks


what are the different types of vaccines

• Live attenuated
• Inactivated
• Subunit (purified antigens)
○ Recombinant
○ Toxoid
○ Polysaccharide
○ Conjugate


what are live attenuated vaccines

• Live pathogen but weakened via genetic manipulations

• Capable of replication within host cells
○ The pathogen can replicate in your tissues

• Excellent life long immunity

• Potentially pathogenic in immune-compromised

• Examples:
- Rotavirus


how do live attenuated vaccines work

1. attachment
influenza virus becomes attached to target epithelial cell

2. penetration
the cell engulfs the virus by endocytosis

3. uncoating
viral contents are released

4. biosynthesis
viral RNA enters the nucleus, where it is replicated by the viral RNA polymerase

5. assembly
new phage particles are assembled

6. release
new viral particles are made and released into the ECF
the cell which is not killed in the process continues to make new virus

[actually have no clue what any of this means it is in a diagram but dunno if it is actually associated with how this vaccine works lol]


what are inactivated vaccines

• Killed through chemical or physical processes
○ Take the live organism and kill it but it will remain structurally intact

• Cannot replicate or cause disease
○ Safer vaccine

• Weak immunity
• Several doses required
○ Needs booster doses to generate the protective immunity

• Examples:
○ Polio
○ Pertussis


what are subunit ((purified antigens)) vaccines

• No live components
• Takes 2/3 doses to get the long lived memory response you want

• Recombinant - produced by genetic engineering
○ Hep B

• Toxoid - inactivated bacterial toxins
○ Diphtheria
○ Tetanus

• Polysaccharide - encapsulated bacteria - T cell independent

• Conjugate - polysaccharide antigens linked to proteins
○ Hib


what are adjuvants

Enhance immune responses to vaccine antigens
Inactivated / subunit vaccines


what do aluminium / calcium salts do

Maintain and prolong antigen stability
Enhance and prolong antigen presentation
Granuloma formation


why is granuloma formation useful in vaccines

§ Makes sure the antigen stays at the intended site to be presented to your immune system for longer
If you didn’t have this granuloma then it might be washed away


what are the different routes of administration

• Intramuscular
hepatitis B

• Subcutaneous
eg measles

• Intradermal
eg BCG

• Intranasal

• Oral
eg rotavirus


is there rationale for a dental caries vaccine?

Bacterial aetiology

Cariogenic bacteria produce acids the demineralise tooth surfaces


what do mutans streptococci do

Extremely efficient at accumulating and producing carious surfaces
Extremely tolerant of low pH
Colonisation coincides with tooth eruption
Colonisation stimulates specific IgA and IgG


what are the biological considerations to dental caries vaccination

Mutans streptococci dominate environments frequently exposed to dietary carbohydrates

Mutans streptococci are not the only cariogenic bacteria in the oral biofilm

Other cariogenic species likely to fill niche


what are the ethical considerations to dental caries vaccination

○ Non-life threatening condition
○ Expensive
○ Other initiatives more cost effective
○ Child smile
○ Water fluoridation
○ Dietary advice


what has caused a reduction in infectious diseases

○ Widespread implementation of vaccination strategies
○ Cleaner drinking water
○ Better nutrition
○ Better living standards


what has successful vaccination programmes contributed to

Decreasing burden of infectious diseases

Increasing burden of NCDs associated with aging


name non-communicable diseases

○ Cardiovascular disease
○ Cancer
○ Metabolic disorders
○ Chronic kidney diseases
○ Autoimmune diseases
○ Neurodegenerative disorders