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Flashcards in oral functions 2 Deck (60)
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what are the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve

- ophthalmic branch
- maxillary branch
- mandibular branch


what are the sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve

- ophthalmic branch
- maxillary branch


what are the mixed branches of the trigeminal nerve

mandibular branch


what cranial nerve is the trigeminal nerve

cranial nerve 5 / V


name the cranial nerves

I. Olfactory
II. Optic
III. Oculomotor
IV. Trochlear
V. Trigeminal
VI. Abducens
VII. Facial
VIII. Vestibulochlear
IX. Glossopharyngeal
X. Vagus
XI. Accessory
XII. Hypoglossal


what does the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve innervate

> inferior alveolar (dental) never
= the largest terminal branch of


where does the inferior alveolar (dental) nerve travel

travels in the mandibular canal as far as the mental foramen


where is LA injected for the lower posterior teeth

inferior alveolar (dental) nerve


what is the mental nerve

the sensory branch of the inferior alveolar nerve
the inferior nerve gives off the mental nerve anteriorly which exits the mandible via the mental foramen


what does the mental nerve supply

the chin and lower lip


what is injection to numb the lower posterior teeth called

the inferior alveolar nerve block
ID block


name the branches of the mandibular nerve

- inferior alveolar nerve
- lingual nerve
- buccal nerve
- nerve to mylohyoid
- mental nerve


when performing the ID block what part of the face is numbed

the side of the face where the injection was given up to the midline (central lower incisor)


when giving LA - where do you want the injection to hit and where dont you want the injection to hit

you want the needle to hit bone - want to deposit the LA next to the nerve

you dont want the needle to hit the actual nerve or soft tissues


what does directly hitting the nerve with the needle cause

temporary damage of the ID nerve
(patient will feel as though you have directly hit their lip)
this will take longer for the numbness to wear off
make sure to warn patient not to bite their lip as they wont be able to feel pain if they do bite it

nerve has been traumatised but there was no complete intersection of the nerve so there is not permanent damage


define anaesthesia

loss of sensation


define paraesthesia

an abnormal sensation (typicall tingling or prickling / pins and needles)
caused cheifly by pressure on or damage to the peripheral nerves


define dysaethesia

an abnormal unpleasant sensation felt when touched
caused by damage to peripheral nerves


where should the needle be in the correct position within to ensure they hit the bone

correct position within the pterygomandibular triangle


what happens when the needle accidentally hits the muscle instead of the bone

might cause trismus
also called lock jaw
this is reduced opening of the jaws (limited jaw range of motion)
can be temporary or permanent


what is the purpose of the gag reflex

prevent material entering the pharynx


what evokes the gag reflex

mechanical stimulation of fauces, palate, posterior tongue and pharynx


when does the gag reflex cause a clinical problem

when it is oversensitive


what nerves are involved in the gag reflex

efferent (motor) response from
- V = trigeminal
- IX = glosspharyngeal
- X = vagus
- XI = accessory
- XII = hypoglossal

the motor (secretory) visceral nerves of the salivary glands are also stimulated


name 3 types of neurons based on function

> afferent / sensory neurons
> efferent / motor neurons
> interneuron / connecting neuron


what are afferent / sensory neurons

these carry a message into the CNS
They are going towards the brain or spinal cord


what are efferent / motor neurons

these carry a message to a muscle, gland or other effector
they are carrying messages away from the CNS


what are interneurons

these neurons connect one neuron with another
in many reflexes interneurons connect the sensory and motor neurons


what should be done when making a RPD for a patient with a problematic gag reflex

the posterior part of this RPD is constructed with a retaining mesh to facilitate the attachment of the acrylic extension
this design is indicated when the post dam cannot be tolerated by the patient (gagging reflex) allowing it to be adjusted more easily
in addition this approach will reduce the weight of a large metal connector


what is bell's palsy

a motor disorder
cranial nerve VII (facial nerve) affected