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Flashcards in skin and soft tissue infections Deck (59)
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1

how can infections be classified

- by microbe = bacteria, virus or fungi
- by anatomy = superficial, deeper tissues

2

what type of microbe is staphylococcus aureus

- bacteria
- gram positive cocci
- can cause a wide range of diseases

3

what is the virulence factor of staphylococcus aureus

- Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) toxin

4

how does PVL work

- toxin that attacks the white blood cells
- works by punching holes in the outer membrane of the epithelial cells and causes the content of the cell to leak out
- can also work on polymorphs = cause all enzymes in it to be released and causes tissues atrophy

5

where is staphylococcus aureus most common

- nose throat and groin are most affected = 20-30% of us will carry it in these areas of our body

6

what are pyogenic infections caused by staphylococcus aureus

- boils, carbuncles
- wound infections
- abscesses
- impetigo
- mastitis
- pneumonia
- endocarditis
- bacteraemia
- osteomyelitis

7

what are toxin mediated infections caused by staphylococcus aureus

- scalded skin syndrome
- toxic shock syndrome
- food poisoning

8

what type of microbe is streptococcus pyogenes

- bacteria
- pus producing
- other name is Group A streptococcal infections
- gram positive
- chains rather than clump together

9

what is the haemolytic occurring around colonies of streptococcus pyogenes

- beta haemolysis

10

what is the virulence factor of streptococcus pyogenes

- superantigens causing toxic shock syndrome

11

why are they called super antigens

- because it is an effect on our immune system that is disproportionate to the amount of antigen present
- activates all the pathways and bypasses other control systems

12

what else can streptococcus pyogenes cause

- enzyme release causing skin infection, pharyngitis, otitis media
- bacteraemia causing meningitis, arthritis and osteomyelitis
- antigen causing post-streptococcal glomerulonephirits or acute rheumatic fever

13

how does streptococcus pyogenes cause toxic shock syndrome

- releases a super antigen that then causes cytokine release leading to toxic shock syndrome

14

what is a disease caused by streptococcus pyogenes

- cellulitis
- get streptococcus skin and soft tissue infections in neck

15

what type of microbe is streptococcus anginosus group

- bacteria
- gram positive
- chains

16

what is the virulence factor for streptococcus anginosus

- intermedilysin
- it is a cytotoxin
- it is produced by an anginosus group

17

what disease can be caused by streptococcus anginosus

- dental abscesses

18

what type of microbes are anaerobes

- bacteria
- gram positive
- purple rice shaped structures
- bacilli
- clostridium species is an example

19

what is the virulence factor of anaerobes

- alpha toxin (lecithinase)
- like an enzyme, it breaks down the outer cell membrane and allows infection to spread

20

what type of reaction is used to identify clostridium

- Nagler reaction
- zone of inhibition around the white streaks show that it is clostridium

21

what type of microbe is herpes simplex virus

- virus
- DNA virus with envelope around it
- "fried egg virus"

22

what is the virulence factor of herpes simplex virus

- causes lysis of other cells

23

what disease can be caused by herpes simplex virus

- herpes labialis

24

what type of microbe is Candida albicans

- fungi
- yeast cells
- they are 10 times bigger then bacteria

25

what is the virulence factor of Candida albicans

- phospholipase
- breaks down phospholipids in cell membrane

26

what disease can be caused by Candida albicans

- candidiasis

27

where is impetigo and angular cheilitis found

- epidermis

28

what is angular cheilitis and impetigo

- golden honey coloured crusted lesion

29

what is the common cause of impetigo and angular cheilitis

- group A streptococci and maybe sometimes staph aureus

30

where is the herpes simplex virus found

- epidermis