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Flashcards in Immunobiology Deck (109)
1

Cervical LNs

Head and Neck

2

Hilar LNs

Lungs

3

Mediastinal LNs

Trachea/Esophagus

4

Axiallary LNs

Breast, Arm, skin above umbilicus

5

Celiac LNs

Liver, stomach, spleen, pancreas, upper duodenum

6

Superior mesenteric LNs

lower duodenum, jejunum, illeum, colon up to splenic flexture

7

Inferior mesenteric LNs

Colon from splenic flexure to upper rectum

8

Internal illiac LNs

lower rectum to anal canal (above pectinate lone), bladder, vagina (middle third), prostate

9

para aortic LNs

testes, ovaries, kidneys, uterus

10

Superficial inguinal LNs

Anal canal (below pectinate line), skin below umbilicus (Except popliteal), and scrotum

11

Popliteal LNs

Dorsolateral foot, posterior calf

12

What part of LN enlarges in viral immune response?

Paracortex

13

What part of LN is not well developed in patients with DiGeorge?

Paracortex

14

HLA A3

Hemochromatosis

15

HLA B27

Seronegative arthropathies : PAIR
Psoratic arthritis
Ankalosing spondylitis
IBS
Reactive arthritis

16

HLA DQ2/Q8

Celiac disease

17

HLA DR2

Multiple sclerosis, hay fever, SLE, Goodpasture syndrome

18

HLA DR3

DM 1, SLE, Graves, Hashimotos

19

HLA DR4

Rheumatoid arthritis , DM 1

20

HLA DR5

Pernicious anemia, Hashimotos

21

CD16

NK cells

22

IL1

"Osteoclast activating factor"
Fever, acute inflammation
Activates endothelium to express adhesion molecules
TH17 differentiation

23

IL6

Fever
Acute phase proteins

24

IL8

Major cheomtatic factor for neutrophils

25

IL12

Secreated by macrophages to activate NK cells
TH1 differentiation

26

TNFa

Activates antiviral response (WBC recruitment)
Mediates septic shock (vascular leak, activates endothelium)

27

Cytokines secreted by macrophages

IL1, IL6, IL12, IL8, TNFa

28

IL2

Stimulates growth of all types of T cells, NK cells

29

IL3

Supports growth and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells, functions like GM-CSF

30

IFN-y

Secreted by NK cells in response to IL12
stimulates macrophages to kill phagocytosed pathogens
Also activates NK cells
Increases MHC expression on all cells

31

IL4

Differentiation into Th2
Growth of B cells
Class switching to IgE, IgG

32

IL5

Differentiation of B cells
Class switching to IgA
Stimulates growth and differentiation of eosionophils

33

IL10

Modulates inflammatory response
(TGF b and IL10 attenuate immune response)

34

Pneuomonic for IL1-6

Hot T-bone stEAK
IL1- fever
IL2- T cell activation
IL3- bone marrow stem cell growth
IL4- IgE class switching
IL5- IgA class switching
IL6: aKute phase protein production

35

IgG

Delayed response
Monomer, most abundant antibody isotope in serum
Crosses placenta
Fixes complement, opsonizes, neutralizes bacteria and viruses

36

IgA

Dimer when secreted (monomer in circulation)
Mucosal immunity (produced in GI tract to protect against gut infections, eg Giardia)
Released in secretions (tear, saliva, breast milk)

37

IgM

Immediate response
Pentamer (increases avidity)
Fixes complement, antigen receptor (along with IgD),

38

IgD

Surface receptor on naive B cells

39

IgE

Binds mast cells and basophils
Cross links when exposed to allergens (type I rxn)
Helmith infections via eosinophils
Lowest concentration in serum

40

Anti Ach receptor

Myasthenia Gravis

41

Anti basement membrane

Goodpasture syndrome

42

Anticardiolipin, lupus anticoagulant

SLE, antiphospholipid

43

Anti-centromere

Limited scleroderma (CREST)

44

anti-desmosome/anti-desmoglein

pemphigus vulgaris

45

anti-dsDNA, anti Smith

SLE

46

anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase

GAD-65
Type 1 DM

47

Anti-hemidesomosome

bullous pemphigoid

48

anti-histone

drug induced lupus

49

anti-Jo1, antiSRP, anti Mi2

polymyositis, dermatomyositis

50

antimitochondrial

Primary billary cirrohis

51

antinuclear antibodies

SLE, non specific

52

anti-microsomal, anti-thyroglobulin

Hashimotos thyroiditis

53

antiparietal cell

Pernicious anemia

54

anti- Scl 70

topoisomerase I
scleroderma (Diffuse)

55

Anti-SSA (rho) and anti-SSB (la)

sjogren syndrome

56

anit-smooth muscle

autoimmune hepatitis

57

anti-TSH receptor

Graves disease

58

anti-U1 RNP

ribonucleoprotein
Mixed connective tissue disease

59

IgA anti-endmysial, IgA anti tissue transglutaminase

Celiac disease

60

MPO- ANCA, p-ANCA

microscopic polyangitis, Churg strauss

61

PR3-ANCA, c-ANCA

Wegner's (granulomatosis with polyangitis)

62

Rheumatoid factor, anti-CCP

IgM antibody that targets IgG Fc region
CCP more specific
Rheumatoid arthritis

63

Alemtuzumab

Anti-CD52
CLL

64

Bevacizumab

anti-VEGF
colorectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma

65

Cetuximab

anti-EGFR
Stage IV colerectal cancer, head and neck cancer

66

Rituximab

anti-CD20
B cell non hodgkins lymphoma, CLL, rheumatoid artiritis, ITP

67

Traztuzumab

anti- HER2 receptor /neu
breast cancer
(herceptin, cardiotoxicity)

68

Adalimumab, infliximab

anti soluble TNFa
IBD, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis

69

Ecluzimab

anti C5
PNH

70

Natalizumab

a4 integrin (WBC adhesion)
MS, Chrohns,
Risk of PML in patients with JC virus infection

71

Abciximab

anti- GpIIb/IIIa
Antiplatelet for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

72

Denosumab

anti-RANKL
Osteoporosis (inhibits osteoclast activation, acts like osteoprotegerin)

73

Digoxin Fab

antidote for dig toxicity

74

Omalizumab

anti IgE
allergic asthma

75

Palivizumab

anti- RSV F protein
RSV prophylaxis for high risk infants

76

Ranibizumab/bevacizumab

anti-VEGF
neovascular age related macular degeneration

77

IL7

thymus produced interleukin that promotes T cell maturation

78

Major adhesion molecule on T cells and ligand

LFA-1 (leukocytes function-associated antigen 1) on T cell with ICAM1 on APC

79

Costimulator receptors and T cell ligand

B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) on APC & CD28 on T cell
CD40 on APCs & CD40L on T cell

80

Inhibitory receptors on T cells

CTLA-4
PD-1

81

NFAT pathway

Lck (CD4/8) --> P- ZAP70 --> PLC --> IP3--> Ca from ER --> calcineurin phosphotase --> NFAT (dephosphorylated by calcineurin) acts as TF for IL2 and IL2R
Cyclosporin blocks calcinuerin phosphotase

82

Cytokines responsible for Th1 differentiation

IL12 produced by macrophages
IFN-y produced by NK cells

83

Th1 response

"Classical Macrophage Activation" = M1 macrophages
- Kill phagocytosed bacteria
- Th1 cells produce IFN-y and CD40L which activate macrophages and transcription factors that increase expression of MHC and B7, secrete cytokines, and enhance killing of phagocytosed bacter
- Also inhibit the Th2, Th17 response

84

Cytokines responsible for Th2 differentiation

IL4

85

Th2 response

Helminth response + "Alternative Macrophage Activation"= M2 macrophages
- Th2 cells produce IL4 which increases IgE production which can bind to mast cells, coat helminths and activate the FcERI receptors on eosinophils to release granules ;
- IL5 secretion also activates eosinophils
- IL13 increases mucous secretion and gut peristalsis
- IL10 inhibits Th1 response
- IL4, 13 activate macrophages which then activate fibroblasts to increase collagen production /repair mechanism/ fibrosis (M2 pathway)

86

Cytokines for Th17 response

IL1, IL6, TGF-b, and IL23

87

Th17 response

Alternate/enhanced bacteria and fungal inflammatory response
- Produces IL17 --> chemokines to attract leukocytes esp PMNs
- Produces IL22--> improves and repairs epithelial barrier and antimicrobial functions

88

Contents of CD8 T cell granules

Released into immune synapse (LFA-1/ICAM binding)
Perforin (holes in plasma membrane)
Granzyme B - cleaves caspases (cysteine protease cleaves after aspartate) that induce apoptosis

89

What type of bacteria does MAC defend against?

gram negative

90

Where are complement plasma proteins synthesized?

liver

91

What are the three main inhibitors of complement?

C1 INH (blocks C1 esterase activation)
DAF/CD55 - blocks C3b from binding Bb (classical pathway) and C2a from binding C4b (alternative and MBL)
Factor I and cofactor H - cleaves C3b into inactive fragments

92

Steps in the classical pathway of complement

antigen binds IgM or IgG; Fc region binds C1 complement protein ; C1 cleaves C4 and C2 into C4b2b which acts as a C3 convertase; C4b2b3b in the C5 convertase
- same a MBL pathways

93

Steps in the alternative pathway of complement

C3b binds covalently to microbe ; Factor B also binds C3b and is broken down by plasma protease factor D to Bb; C3bBb is the C3 convertase, C3bBb3b is the C5 convertase

94

What does C3a do?

anaphalxis (with C4a, C5a)

95

What does C5a do?

chemotaxis of neutrophils

96

What does C3b do?

opsonin; CR1 protein binds

97

What does C5b do?

joins with C6-C9 to form MAC, esp effective against Neisseria (thus deficiencies lead to issues with Neisseria infections)

98

CD28

T cell surface protein
Binds B71/2 = CD80/86 on macrophages
Co-stimulation

99

CD3

T cell surface protein
Signal transduction with Zeta

100

CD40L

Helper T cell surface protein (mediated class switching on B cells)
Also present on dendridic cells and macrophages to mediate T cell proliferation

101

CD25

Regulatory T cell marker

102

CD40

B cell surface protein (receptor for CD40L)

103

CD20, CD19

B cell surface protein

104

CD21

B cell surface protein
EBV receptor

105

CD14

Surface protein for Macrophages

106

CD16

Surface protein NK cells
Binds Fc portion of IgG

107

CD56

Surface protein NK cells
Unique NK cell marker

108

CD34

Hemopoetic stem cell marker

109

tachyphylaxis

end organ unresponsiveness to a molecule
ex: someone with factor I deficiency that constantly cleaves C3 and then overproduces C3a which activates mast cells can develop tachyphylaxis to histamine so only shows symptoms of histamine release (hives) when histamine increases (e.g. alcohol, change in temp - bath or shower)