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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (51)
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1

Glucagonoma

Tumor of the pancreatic a cells
4 Ds: dermatitis (necrolytic migratory erythema); diabetes (hyperglycemia), DVT, and depression

2

Insulinoma

- Episodic hypoglycemia and mental status changes that improve with glucose
- Have low glucose, high insulin, and high C peptide (indicating endogenous insulin production)
- Treat with surgical resection

3

Gatrinoma / Zollinger Ellision syndrome

- Gastrin producing tumor of pancreas of duodenum that results in treatment resistant peptic ulcers that can extend into jejunum
-Sx: abdominal pain, diarrhea (malabsorption)
- Test: exogenous secretin (S cells secreted in duodenum to decrease gastric acid sectretion) does not decrease gastrin levels
- Associated with MEN 1

4

Somatistatinoma

- Inhibits gastrin (results in acholhydria) and CCK which promotes contraction of the gall bladder (can lead to stone and steanorrhea)

5

VIPoma

Vasoactive peptide inhibits gastric acid secretion
Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and acholorhydria (WDHA syndrome - Watery Diarrhea, Hypokalemia, Acholorhydria)

6

Which structure connects the thyroid gland with the tongue?

thyroglossal duct
reminent in adult is the foramen cecum, a divot at the merge pt of the 3 parts of the tongue

7

How can you differentiate a thyroglossal duct cyst from a branchial cleft cyst?

TGD cyst is midline and motile (will move with swallowing), comes from patent thryoglossal duct
Branchial cleft cyst is lateral and derives from persistent cervical sinus

8

What are parafollicular cells in the thyroid dervied from and what cancer do they cause?

neuroendocrine cells
secrete calcitonin
cause medullary thyroid cancer (v aggressive)

9

What are the name of the carrier proteins that transport posterior pituitary hormones from the hypothalamus?

Neurophysins

10

GLUT 1

Non insulin dependent
Brain, cornea, RBCs

11

GLUT 2

liver, kidney, small intestine, beta islet cells
bi-directional
High Vmax, high Km

12

GLUT 3

Brain

13

GLUT 4

Insulin dependent (insulin upregulates their presence on cell surface)
Muscle and adipose
Low Km (high affinity), low Vmax

14

GLUT 5

fructose transporter
Spermatocytes, GI tract

15

What is another name for IGF-1?

Somatomedin C

16

What are the common causes of hypomagnesemia?

Diarrhea
Diuretics
Alcohol Abuse
Aminoglycosides (gentamycin, etc)

17

What are the effect(s) of magnesium on PTH?

1) Mild hypomagnesemia causes increase in PTH secretion
2) Gross hypomag causes decrease in PTH secretion

18

Which hormones use Gas receptors?

FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH [FLAT]
CRH, GHRH
PTH, calcitonin
MSH
ADH (V2)
hCG

19

What hormones signal through cGMP?

ANP, BNP, NO (EDRF)
Think vasodilation

20

What hormones signal through Gq?

GnRH, Oxytocin, ADH (V1), TRH, Histamine (H1), Angiotensin II, Gastrin

21

What hormones signal via an intracellular receptor?

Cortisol, aldosterone, T3/T4, progesterone, estrogen, vitamin D

22

What hormones signal through an intrinsic tyrosine kinase receptor?

Insulin, IGF-1, FGF, PDGF, EGF

23

What hormones signal through a receptor associated tyrosine kinase?

Prolactin, Immunomodulators (IL2, IL6, etc), GH, G-CSF, EPO, TPO

24

Effects of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels on Men and women

- Increase SHBG in men decreases free testosterone, gynocomastia
- Decreases in SHBG in women increase free testosterone, cause hirrsuitism
- Increase SHBG (women) due to pregnancy or OPCs do nothing, free estrogen levels unchanged

25

What are the classic signs associated with a neuroblastoma?

kid

26

Differences between neuroblastoma and willms tumor?

NB irregular, crosses midline
Wilms: renal tissue, smooth, never crosses midline, slightly older kids >4

27

What are pheos associated with?

MEN2A, MEN2B, neurofibromatosis type 1, von Hippel Lindau

28

What is the rule of pheos?

Rule of 10%
Malignant
Kids
Calcify
Extra-renal
Bilateral

29

What is the pathonomonic presentation of congenital hypothyroidism?

"Cretinism" : 6 Ps, seen in kids
Pot bellied
Protruding umbilicus
Pale
Puffy faced
Proturberant tongue
Poor brain development

30

What are the pathnomonic cells seen in Hashimotos thyroiditis?

Hurthle cells