Flashcards in Reproductive Deck (64)
Components of Ectoderm
Surface ectoderm, neuroectoderm, neural crest
What are the components of surface ectoderm?
Lens of the eye
Nasal and oral epithelium
Ear sensory organ
Adenohypopysis (Rathke's pouch)
Parotid, sweat, and mamillary glands
Anal canal below pectinate line (stratified squamous)
What is a craniopharyngioma?
benign tumor of Rathke pouch (surface ectoderm) that has cholesterol crystals, calcifications
What are the components/derivatives of neuroectoderm?
- Brain (neurohypophysis, CNS neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, pineal gland)
- Optic nerve
- Spinal cord
What are the components derived from neural crest cells?
- DRG, cranial nerves, schwann cells, ANS)
- chromaffin cells adrenal medulla
- parafollicular (C) cells of thyroid
- pai and arachnoid
- skull bones
- aorticopulmonary septum
What are the components derived from mesoderm?
Muscle (skeletal, cardiac), bone, connective tissue, blood, lymphatics
Serous lining of the body cavities
wall of the gut tube
Kidneys, testes, ovaries, vagina
What is the notocord derived from?
What is its function?
uses SHH signaling to induce formation of neural plate
What is the post-natal derivative of the notocord?
nucleus pulposus of the spinal cord
What are mesodermal defects?
Limb defects (bone and muscle)
What is the derivative(s) of endoderm?
Epithelial lining of gut tube above pectinate line
Most of urethra
Luminal epithelial derivatives (lung, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, eustacian tube, thymus, parathyroid, thyroid follicular glands)
Branchial cleft 1 structures
external auditory meatus
Branchial cleft 2-4 structures
Filled in by 2nd arch mesenchyme
Can persist as branchial cleft cyst (lateral neck mass in child that does not move when swallowing)
Branchial arch 1 structures
Cartilage: Meckels: mandible, malleous, incus, and sphenomandibular ligament
Muscle: mastication (temporal, masseter, medial and lateral ptyerogoid), tensor tympani, tensor veli palitini, mylohyoid, anterior belly digastric
Nerves: V2 and V3 (maxillary and mandibular)
Branchial pouch structure 1
middle ear, eustacian tube, mastoid air cells (endoderm lined structures of the ear)
What is the mechanism of clomiphene?
ER anatogonist in hypothalamus
Decreases negative feedback and increase LH and FSH secretion from pituitary to stimulate ovulation
What are the side effects of clomiphene?
Hot flashes, ovarian enlargement, multiple simutaneous pregnancies, visual disturbances
What is clomiphene used to treat?
PCOS, infertility due to anovulation
What are ketoconazole and spirnolactone used to treat in PCOs?
What is the first line treatment of PCOS?
What would you give a woman with PCOS who doesn't want to get pregnant?
OCPs, control symptoms and preg
What is the mechanism of leuprolide
GnRH analog that acts as an agonist when given as a pulsitile dose and an antagonist when given continuously(down regs GnRH receptor on pituitary)
When can you use leuprolide?
Continuous: prostate cancer after flutamide; leiomyomas; precocious puberty, endometriosis
What are the side effects of leuprolide?
Antiandrogen, nausea, vomiting
What is the mechanism of danazol?
synthetic androgen that acts as a partial agonist at androgen receptors
What is danazol used to treat?
Hereditary angioedema, endometriosis
What are the side effects of danazol?
Weight gain, edema, acne, hirsuitism, maculinization, lower HDL, hepatotoxicity
What is the treatment for endometriosis?
NSAIDS, OCPs, progestins, GnRH agonists, danazol, laproscopic removal
What is the mechanism of progestins?
Binds to PR and decrease growth and increase vascularization of endometrium