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Flashcards in Reproductive Deck (64)
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1

Components of Ectoderm

Surface ectoderm, neuroectoderm, neural crest

2

What are the components of surface ectoderm?

Epidermis
Lens of the eye
Nasal and oral epithelium
Ear sensory organ
Tooth enamel
Adenohypopysis (Rathke's pouch)
Parotid, sweat, and mamillary glands
Anal canal below pectinate line (stratified squamous)

3

What is a craniopharyngioma?

benign tumor of Rathke pouch (surface ectoderm) that has cholesterol crystals, calcifications

4

What are the components/derivatives of neuroectoderm?

CNS
- Brain (neurohypophysis, CNS neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, pineal gland)
- Retina
- Optic nerve
- Spinal cord

5

What are the components derived from neural crest cells?

PNS
- DRG, cranial nerves, schwann cells, ANS)
- melanocytes
- chromaffin cells adrenal medulla
- parafollicular (C) cells of thyroid
- pai and arachnoid
- skull bones
- odontoblasts
- aorticopulmonary septum

6

What are the components derived from mesoderm?

Muscle (skeletal, cardiac), bone, connective tissue, blood, lymphatics
Serous lining of the body cavities
Spleen
wall of the gut tube
Kidneys, testes, ovaries, vagina
Adrenal cortex
Dermis

7

What is the notocord derived from?

Mesoderm

8

What is its function?

uses SHH signaling to induce formation of neural plate

9

What is the post-natal derivative of the notocord?

nucleus pulposus of the spinal cord

10

What are mesodermal defects?

VATER CL
Vertebral defects
Anal atresia
Tracheo-esophageal fistula
Renal defects

Cardio defeects
Limb defects (bone and muscle)

11

What is the derivative(s) of endoderm?

Epithelial lining of gut tube above pectinate line
Most of urethra
Luminal epithelial derivatives (lung, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, eustacian tube, thymus, parathyroid, thyroid follicular glands)

12

Branchial cleft 1 structures

external auditory meatus

13

Branchial cleft 2-4 structures

Cervical sinuses
Filled in by 2nd arch mesenchyme
Can persist as branchial cleft cyst (lateral neck mass in child that does not move when swallowing)

14

Branchial arch 1 structures

Cartilage: Meckels: mandible, malleous, incus, and sphenomandibular ligament
Muscle: mastication (temporal, masseter, medial and lateral ptyerogoid), tensor tympani, tensor veli palitini, mylohyoid, anterior belly digastric
Nerves: V2 and V3 (maxillary and mandibular)

15

Branchial pouch structure 1

middle ear, eustacian tube, mastoid air cells (endoderm lined structures of the ear)

16

What is the mechanism of clomiphene?

ER anatogonist in hypothalamus
Decreases negative feedback and increase LH and FSH secretion from pituitary to stimulate ovulation

17

What are the side effects of clomiphene?

Hot flashes, ovarian enlargement, multiple simutaneous pregnancies, visual disturbances

18

What is clomiphene used to treat?

PCOS, infertility due to anovulation

19

What are ketoconazole and spirnolactone used to treat in PCOs?

Androgen symptoms

20

What is the first line treatment of PCOS?

weight reduction

21

What would you give a woman with PCOS who doesn't want to get pregnant?

OCPs, control symptoms and preg

22

What is the mechanism of leuprolide

GnRH analog that acts as an agonist when given as a pulsitile dose and an antagonist when given continuously(down regs GnRH receptor on pituitary)

23

When can you use leuprolide?

Pulsitile: infertility
Continuous: prostate cancer after flutamide; leiomyomas; precocious puberty, endometriosis

24

What are the side effects of leuprolide?

Antiandrogen, nausea, vomiting

25

What is the mechanism of danazol?

synthetic androgen that acts as a partial agonist at androgen receptors

26

What is danazol used to treat?

Hereditary angioedema, endometriosis

27

What are the side effects of danazol?

Weight gain, edema, acne, hirsuitism, maculinization, lower HDL, hepatotoxicity

28

What is the treatment for endometriosis?

NSAIDS, OCPs, progestins, GnRH agonists, danazol, laproscopic removal

29

What is the mechanism of progestins?

Binds to PR and decrease growth and increase vascularization of endometrium

30

When are progestins used?

In OCPs and to treat endometrial cancer, abnormal uterine bleeding