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Flashcards in immunopathology Deck (11)
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what are the 2 ways that salmonella trigger the immune response

1) bacteria replicates inside macrophages --> activates inflammasomes --> activates fever associated cell death via caspase 1 --> bacteria come out of the cell --> mopped up by neutrophils

2) bacteria causes the DC to secrete IL-18 --> good at getting rid of IC pathogens


what is familial cold uticaria caused by (mechanism)

NLRP3 aggregates with other proteins (including pro-caspase-1) to form an inflammasome --> activates caspase 1 --> cleaves proIL-1 to IL-1 --> acute inflammatory response


how is IL-1 made

made as pro-IL-1 - then cleaved by ICE/caspase 1


what causes gout

excessive consumption of purine rich foods --> monosodium urate formation exceeds renal clearance capacity


what is another name for cryopyrin

NLRP3 (NOD-like R)


what is familial cold uticaria caused by (genetics)

a single point mutation of cryopyrin


mechanism for gout

urate crystal phagocytosis --> activates NLRP3 inflammasome activation --> caspase 1 activation --> cleavage and activation of IL-1 --> acute inflammation in the joints


what syndromes/diseases are associated with metabolic syndrome?

- heart disease

- lipid problems

- HT

 - T2DM

- dementia

- cancer


- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease


treatment for gout

anakinra = IL-1 antagonist


the effects of IL-1 depend on...

- conc of IL-1

- interaction with other molecules


how does metabolic syndrome predispose you to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

hyperlipidaemia --> lipid goes into tissues --> palmitate and ceramides form crystals --> activate inflammasomes --> release IFN-gamma and IL-1 into circulation --> initiates insulin R --> eventually pancreas cant keep up with demand for insulin --> hepatocyte damage (non-alcohol fatty liver disease)