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Flashcards in Liver enzymes Deck (23)
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1

which liver enzymes come from the mitochondria

AST

1

which liver enzymes are released during liver necrosis

ALT AST LD

1

what is the role of AST

helps shuffle malate in and out of the mitochondria of all cells (not liver specific)

2

where is ALT found

liver and muscle

3

when AST>>ALT, what do you think

acute, affecting mitochondria (especially alcohol and toxins)

4

which liver enzymes come from the hepatocellular membrane

ALP GGT

5

what is the role of GGT

helps with transport of amino acids across membranes and important in the production of glutathione

5

what is the difference in the levels of ALP and GGT with extra and intra hepatitic jaundice

extra - GGT and ALP +++ (usually 10x higher) intra - GGT and ALP +

6

why is AST and ALT normal in someone with cirrhosis

because the liver cells are being replaced by scar tissue - no hepatocytes left to damage and release AST and ALT

7

where is GGT found

liver, biliary epithelium, renal (small amount)

8

what are the main drugs that cause hepatocellular injury

antiobiotics statins ethanol paracetamol herbal tea

10

which liver enzymes are released by inducing drugs

GGT and ALP

12

where is ALP found

bone, liver, placenta

14

how does damage to the cytoskeleton of the hepatocyte occur (3 ways)

- oxidate stress leading to thiol depletion and increased Ca - hypoxia - covalent binding toxin to cytoskeletal proteins

15

when ALT>AST, what do you think

chronic/resolving especially hepatitis

15

what would the level of AST be during chronic liver disease

normal

16

which liver enzymes come from the cytoplasm

ALT AST LD

17

what are the approximate levels of ALT during hepatitis A mild to severe

mild - 250 moderate - 1000 severe = 5000

18

which out of AST and ALT has the longer half life

ALT

20

what is the normal level of ALT

less than 50

21

what is the role of ALT

transfers Energy to muscle and liver (more liver)

22

what are the most common antibiotics that cause hepatocellular injury

flucloxacillin and amoxil

23

which liver enzymes are released during biliary obstruction

ALP and GGT