anatomy - anterior and posterior abdominal muscles and retroperitoneal viscera Flashcards Preview

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1

inferior margin of the transversus abdominus

-most attaches to anterior 2/3 of iliac crest - lowermost fibres arise from the lateral 1/2 of the inguinal ligament --> arch upwards and into tho the pubic crest via the conjoin tendon with the internal oblique

2

inferior margin of the rectus abdominus

body and crest of the pubis

2

route and insertion of psoas major muscles

fibres converge and head beneath the inguinal ligaments --> converge with iliacus muscle as the iliopsoas tendon and insert into the lesser trochanter of the femur

3

layers from superficial to deep of the anterior abdominal wall

- skin - superficial fascia - rectus abdominus - external oblique - internal oblique - transversus abdominis - fascia transversalis - extraperitoneal fat - serous pariteal peritoneum - visceral peritoneus

3

where are the lumbar veins relative to psoas

lumbar veins sit behind psoas major

4

renal arteries split into the

segmental arteries

5

what is the pectineal ligament

the linear extension of the lacunar ligament that lies along the pectineal line

5

narrowing throughout the ureter

beginning (where the renal pelvis narrows to become the ureter) end (where the ureter enters the bladder) middle - compression/kinking produced as the ureter tips over the pelvic brim

6

lateral margin of the rectus abdominus

clear lateral border - linear semilunaris

7

surface marking of the gall bladder is where

where the linear semilunaris intersects with the costal margin on the R side

7

where is the internal inguinal ring

halfway between ASIS and pubic tubercle, a fingers breath above the inguinal ligament

8

where is visceral peritoneum

surrounds abdominal viscera

8

posterior margin of the transversus abdominus

attaches to thoraco-lumbar fascia

9

renal pelvis formed by

the uniting of 2 or 3 major calyces (each in turn receives 2 or 3 minor calyces (receives the apex of the downward pointing pyramidal components of the medulla))

11

next muscle lying lateral to psoas major/minor superiorly

quadratus lumborum

12

next muscle lying lateral to psoas major

psoas minor

12

next muscle lying lateral to psoas major/minor inferiorly

iliacus muscle

13

superior margin of the retus abdominus

overlaps the costal margin and attaches to the anterior surface of costal cartilages 5,6 and 7

13

origin of psoas major muscles

from the lower border of T12 to the upper border of L5 (attached to the bodies, the discs and the medial ends of the transverse processes)

13

orign, route and insertion of iliacus muscle

arises from the iliac fossa --> fibres converge and pass beneath the inguinal ligament, meet the psoas fibres, and together they insert via a conjoint tendon (iliopsoas tendon) --> insert into the lesser trochanter

14

position exactly of the psoas major muscles

lie in the gutter between the bodies and transverse processes of the lumbar vertebra

15

venous drainage of the anterior abdominal wall

dual system - anastomose - by IVC (canal system) - by portal venous system

15

function of quadratus lumborum

stabilises the 12th rib and laterally flexus the spine

16

difference between intraperitoneal viscera and retropertioneal viscera

intra - organ completely surrounded by visceral peritoneum and connected to the posterior abdominal wall by a mesentry retro - pareital peritoneum only goes over the front of the organ (the posterior part of the organ sits back on the posterior abdominal wall)

17

what is mesentry

the double fold of peritoneum that goes to surround the viscera

18

order of movement through the inguinal canal

- creates an opening in the transversalis fascia = deep/internal inguinal ring - traverses the inguinal canal - exits through the superficial/external inguinal ring

19

medial margin of the external oblique

meet with fibres from the other side at the linea alba (midline vertical raphe)

20

what forms the floor, roof, anterior walls and posterior walls of the inguinal canal

floor - inguinal ligament roof - arching fibres of internal oblique and transversus abdominus anterior wall: external oblique aponeurosis, internal oblique muscle (lateral) posterior wall: transversalis fascia, conjoint tend (medial)

21

where is the lumbar plexus relative to psoas

within psoas

21

origin of psoas minor

from the lower borders of T12 and L1

23

where is the neurovascular plane of the anterior abdominal wall

lies between internal oblique and transversus abdominus

24

inferior margin of the external oblique

inferior fibres insert onto the anterior half of the iliac crest and the pubic tubercle and pubic crest

25

what is important about where the 3 layers of the thoracolumbar fascia fuse

it is the anchor point for the muscles of the abdominal wall

26

posterior margin of the external oblique

free posterior edge

26

major structures of the kidney hilum from anterior to posterior

renal vein renal artery dilated upper part of the ureter (renal pelvis) (also nerves and lymphatics)

27

surrounding the kidney...

fibrous capsule perirenal fat renal fascia

28

where does the innervation of the anterior abdominal wall originate from

segmental innervation by the ventral rami of T6-L1

28

length and position of the ureter

25-30cm long - initially relates to psoas as it passes down the posterior abdominal wall --> then tip over the pelvic brim --> run around the lateral wall of the pelvis and into the bladder

30

direction of fibres of the transversus abdominus

horizontally forwards towards the midline

31

inferior margin of the internal oblique

- most fibres take origin form the anterior 2/3 of the iliac crest - lowermost fibres actually arise from the lateral 2/3 of the inguinal ligaments --> arch over and downwards and insert into the pubic crest with transversus abdominus via conjoined tendon

32

where do the gonads develop

in the extraperitoneal fat of the superior lumbar region of the posterior abdominal wall

34

lateral and medial parts of all three abdominal muscles

lateral - fleshy medial - aponeurotic

35

direction of rectus abdominus

long vertical muscle

36

origin and insertion of quadratus lumborum

arises from the posterior half of the iliac crest and the iliolumbar ligament and inserts into the inferior border of the 12th ribs

37

framework of the position of the poster abdominal muscles

fills in the gap left between 12th rib above, the posterior half of the iliac crest inferiorly and lateral to the lumbar vertebra 1-5, sitting in the paravertebral gutters

38

where are the levels of the tendonous intersections of the rectus abdominus

- umbilicus - xyphisternum - halfway between the other two

39

3 layers of the thoracolumbar fascia

- posterior leaf - attaches to the tip of the spinous processes - middle leaf - attaches to the tip of the transverse processes - anterior leaf - attaches to the anterior aspect of the transverse processes 3 layers fuse at the line of the tip of the 12th rib

40

where is the sympathetic trunk relative to psoas

lying on the front

40

foetal development of the kidney in respect to positioning in the body

starts off lower in the posterior abdominal wall due to differential growth rates --> kidney changes position --> T12-L3 (means they take change their blood supply throughout their development moving upwards through the abdominal wall)

41

position of the right kidney relative to the left kidney

right sits slightly loweer than the left due to the liver

43

function of tendonous intersections of the rectus abdominus

breaks up the vertical ascent of the fibres to make them more powerful (more powerful than one long muscle)

44

routes of right and left renal veins

right - straight across into the IVC left - crosses anterior to the aorta and then into the IVC

46

what makes up the mesentery

where the serous parietal peritoneum reflects off as a double fold of peritoneum to surround viscera

47

major roles of the abdominal muscles

- muscles of active expiration - increase abdominal pressure to assist with evacuation processes

48

size of kidneys

10cm long, 5cm wide, 2.5cm thick

50

landmark of T10

umbilicus

51

compartments of the thoracolumbar fascia

posterior compartment - contains erector spinae anterior compartment - contains quadratus lumborum

52

position of the kidney in the abdominal contents

lateral to lumbavertebral column and psoas, in the paravertebral gutters on quadratus lumborum, adjacent to T12-L3, intimately related to the diaphragm - retroperitoneal

54

first muscles lateral to the lumbar vertebra of the posterior abdominal wall

pair of psoas major muscles

56

superior margin of the transversus abdominus

underlaps the costal margin

58

Superior margin of the external oblique

overlaps the costal margin onto the anterior surface of the lower 8 ribs lying edge to edge with pectoralis major and serratus anterior

59

shape of right and left adrenal glands

right - pyramidal shaped which sits right on the top of the kidney left - crescent shaped - sits at the superior aspect of the medial border

60

macroscopic anatomy of the cortex and medulla of the kidney

- outer, pale continuous cortex - inner, discontinuous darker medulla arranged as a series -of pyramids

61

where is the superficial/external inguinal ring

it is the medial triangular opening in the external oblique aponeurosis between the attachments of the internal oblique and transversus abdominus

62

medial margin of internal oblique

linea alba (vertical raphe of the midline)

64

what forms the rectus sheath

the aponeuroses of the 3 lower muscles of the abdominal wall

65

insertion of psoas minor

blends in with the fascia overlying psoas major

67

what is the inguinal ligmanet

the thickened free inferior edge of the external oblique spanning from the ASIS to the pubic tubercle

68

blood supply of the anterior abdominal wall

- superior epigastric (branch of internal thoracic artery - inferior epigastric (branch of external iliac artery) - (superficial epigastric lying in the superficial fascia)

69

function of the inguinal canal

passageway that the testes takes through the anterior abdominal wall once its go down from its beginnings in the extra-peritoneal fat on the posterior abdominal wall

70

timescale of testes migration

12th week in pelvis 28th week - close to the beginning of inguinal canal 3 day traverse through inguinal canal in the scrotum a couple of weeks later

71

fascia of the posterior abdominal muscles

enclosed by the thoracolumbar fascia (except for psoas which has its own fascia = psoas fascia)

72

landmarks of the pelvis

iliac crest with ASIS pubic crest with pubic tubercle

73

direction of fibres of the external and internal obliques

external - front pockets internal - back pockets

74

placement of the right and left renal arteries (relative to the abdominal aorta)

come out horizontal from the abdominal aorta (left arises slightly higher than the right) - right goes behind the IVC - left straight into the renal hilum

76

posterior margin of the internal oblique

take origin from the thoro-columnar fascia

77

anterior and posterior surfaces of the rectus sheath

anterior - complete posterior - complete until about an inch below the umbilicus - disappears at the arcuate line

78

the hilum of the kidney faces which direction

anteriomedially

79

superior margin of the internal oblique

edge to edge to the costal margin

80

what is the lacunar ligament

where the inguinal ligmanet thickens medially and extends medially into a crescent shaped ligament extending onto the peritoneal lining of the pubic bone