Neuronal and humoral control of the GI tract Flashcards Preview

Z MD1 GI block > Neuronal and humoral control of the GI tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuronal and humoral control of the GI tract Deck (49)
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1

what activates I cells

amino acids and FA in the chyme (products of digestion)

1

how does defaecation occur

- distention --> activation of sacral primary afferent neurons - mass movement of faecal matter from colon to rectum - conscious neural activity --> relaxes anal sphincter, and contraction of abdominal muscles --> defecation

2

what are the levels of interacting control systems of the GI tract

local endocrine vago-vagal reflex intestino-intestinal reflex CNS

3

function of the migrating motor complex

clears bacteria and cellular debris from otherwise empy lumen

4

what do amino acids in the chyme activate

I cells and S cells

5

what are the components involved in the intestino-intestinal reflexes

- some vagus - others via dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord

6

what reflexes are activated when food enters the antrum of the stomach

- triggers inhibition of acid secretion in the corpus - pacemaker activity propagates from corpus to antrum --> ripples of constriction towards the pylorus = mashing the food against the closed sphincter

7

key regulatory requirements of the GI tract (4)

- control contractions of intestinal SM to produce mixing and propulsion of contents

- regulate secretion of digestive enzymes and the solvents they require for proper function (water into lumen and bile)

- control re-absorption of water from the lumen to prevent dehydration

- coordinate widely separated regions to ensure proper function

7

what controls the sphincters of the oesophagus

the CNS

7

how does the duodenum facilitate only small amounts of chyme at a time entering the duodenum

- vago-vagal reflex inhibits gastric emptying - duodenal-pyloro-antral reflex closes pylorus --> inhibiting gastric emptying

8

how does the somatostatin released in the duodenum act on the gastric parietal cells

has to go through the blood stream

9

what does the vago-vagal reflex pathways do in the GI tract

they coordinate movements in the upper GI tract - swallowing - acid secretion in the stomach - contractions of the stomach and duodenum - dilation of stomach when food enters the stomach - stimulates Brunners glands in the duodenum when chyme enters - inhibits gastric emptying when chyme in the duodenum

10

what are the 2 main things that influence absorption

- surface area - rate of transit

11

what do S cells secrete

secretin

12

what does the intestino-intestinal reflexes do

produce reflex inhibition of proximal regions when distal regions are distended

12

what does secretin do

- causes secretion of bicarbonate rich solution from the pancreas - removes the brake on gastric emptying by terminating acid stimulated duodenal-antral reflexes and vago-vagal reflexes - inactivates pepsin - inhibits somatostatin secretion from duodenal D cells

13

what do the sweet receptors do when activated

- help regulate appetite and insulin secretion - act on enteric neurons

13

what causes the urge to defecate

stretch activates sacral primary afferent neurons

14

what is the difference in chyme composition over time when it is squirted into the duodenum

initially low in fat later high in fat carbonhdrates at the beginning proteins in the middle

15

which "taste" receptors are expressed in the GI system and on which cells

bitter and unami - expressed on EC cells sweet - expressed on L cells

15

how do sweet receptors help regulate appetite and insulin secretion

contain and release: - glucoagon-like peptides 1 and 2 - activates mechanisms on the villi to absorb glucose - pancreatic polypeptide Y - appetite suppressing

16

What do the bitter and unami taste receptors do when activated

release serotonin from EC cells

17

what does CCK do (4)

- excites terminals of vagal afferent neurons --> reduces desire to eat - excites terminals of enteric sensory neurons --> sets up motility of the system - causes gall bladder contractions --> bile into the duodenum - causes release of digestive enzymes from pancreas (adds to secretin effect)

19

what is the cephalic phase of digestion

GI control system is activated prior to eating - causes salivation, gastric acid and pepsin secretion and relaxation of the gastric corpus and fundus

20

what is ghrelin

a growth hormone release inhibitor released from the stomach in the fasted state that stimulates appetite

21

what do many bacterial toxins target to influence the water and electrolyte secretion system

the submucosal plexus

22

what reflex is activated when food enters the body of the stomach

- the stomach relaxes to accommodate the volume of food swallowed --> activates enteric and vago-vagal reflexes --> activates "stretch receptors" --> causes more acid and more pepsin to be secreted

22

which motor patterns are activated in the duodenum when the meal is in there

retropulsion segmentation peristalsis

23

what are the interstitial cells of Cajal

cells of the local enteric nervous system than produce intrinsic activity in the muscle and regulate this activity and the secretion of water and salt over mm to cm

24

what is the function of the G cells

release gastrin - to control the release of gastric acid secretion on top of vagus control