Flashcards in Impacts Of Energy Security Deck (36):
What determines the energy security of a country?
Domestic resources of fossil fuels.
Domestic renewable potential.
Dependency and reliance on foreign sources for fossil fuels.
How diversified the energy mix of the country is.
Do domestic energy resources provide a lot or very little energy security to countries with small amounts of resources.
Little domestic resources can mean a country is less energy secure, but also means that domestic energy resources aren't important in determining there energy security as their energy security is reliant on imports.
How do countries that rely on foreign sources of fossil fuels reduce energy security.
They have risks, supplies can be disrupted by conflict, piracy and weather.
E.g. gas dispute in 2006 & 2009 led to Bulgaria's gas being cut off and France and Germanys supplies being reduced by 20-30%.
When & why are Germany phasing out nuclear power?
The Fukishama disaster in Japan in March 2011 sparked protests in Germany days later. Consequently, in June 2011, the decision was made to phase out all nuclear plants by 2022
How much of France's electricity is from Nuclear?
Why do China and India rely heavily on coal?
Because they have their own large reserves.
Give an example of two countries heavily reliant on coal?
India & China
How much of China's electricity is produced from coal?
What countries are heavily reliant on Russian Gas?
Bulgaria, Finland and Estonia are 100% reliant on Russian gas
What countries have small renewable potential?
Small crowded countries such as Singapore and Japan.
What countries don't gain the full benefit from their domestic energy resources?
Nigeria and Sudan, as the technology and capital needed to access resources like oil and gas is lacking.
Why doesn't Nigeria achieve it's full domestic energy potential.
As capital and the technology, isn't readily available.
How much of China's new energy will come from renewables?
In China, from 2016 - 2040, 80% of new energy will be produced from renewable sources.
What is the criteria for high energy secure countries?
Generally, high energy secure countries have the technology and capital to extract and process resources.
Extraction is economically viable.
Less reliant on imports, and imports are reliable.
High renewable potential is a factor
What countries lack the technology and capital to extract fossil fuel resources?
Sudan and Nigeria
What is the criteria for energy insecure countries?
Countries with little domestic energy resources.
Heavily reliant on imports of fossil fuels
Supply lines prone to disruption from conflict, war, piracy & weather.
Likely to have low renewable potential, or renewables too costly to be mainstream sources in the energy mix.
What can cause supply routes to be disrupted?
Conflict, disputes, war, piracy and even weather.
Define an energy pathway
Energy pathways are flows of energy from producer to consumer.
What is the trans Siberian pipeline?
A major gas export pipeline from Russia. It's owned by two key energy players. Gazprom and UkrTransGaz.
Both state owned. It transports gas from central/eastern Russia to central/Eastern Europe.
What location of energy pathways have high risk?
Historically an area of conflict. E.g. Iran Iraq war 1980-1988, Gulf war 1990-1991, 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Choke points pose risk.
Give examples of past conflict in the Middle East.
Iran Iraq war 1980-1988
Gulf war 1990-1991
2003 invasion of Iraq
What is a choke point?
A choke point are narrow geographical passages that restrict and confine traffic.
Give an example of a choke point and state what effect this has on energy security.
Choke points such as Straits of Hormuz pose risk.
By 2030, over 30% of global oil supply will travel through this point.
Who are the key energy players in the Trans-Siberian pipeline?
Ukrainian state owned 'UkrTransGaz'
Russia state owned 'Gazprom'
How reliant is Europe on Russian gas imports?
40 % of the EU's gas is from Russia.
How much of Russian gas is transported through Ukraine to Europe?
Half of gas exports to Europe are transported through Ukraine.
What new pipelines are in construction?
Nord Stream 2, expected to be complete in 2019.
What are the pros of Nord Stream 2
Increased security to Western Europe as the pipeline bypasses Ukraine.
What are the cons of Nord Stream 2
Potential conflict between Ukraine and Russia.
Eastern & Central Europe more vulnerable to price rises and gas cutoffs.
Increases Western Europes dependency on gas from Russia.
How could conflict arise from Nord Stream 2?
Price disputes and conflict could cause gas cutoffs.
Ukraine will lose billions in transit fees, and lose political leverage against Russian economic & political aggression.
Why can increased dependency on Russian gas be considered as a bad thing?
As it increases Russia's ability to use gas as a political weapon.
Choke points are ____ hotspots.
How much gas is imported into the EU from Russia?
What economic risks are present during energy supply disruption?
High oil prices increase costs for industry, leading to inflation, rising prices, slow in eco growth or even recession.
SA blackouts from 2007 led in 2008 to reduced FDI, 2% trimmed off eco growth, travel chaos.
What political risks are there from disruption to energy supplies?
People can take to the streets if they can't afford or get energy. E.g. protests in UK in 2000, led to 3000 fuel stations to be closed.
Conflict between countries, e.g. Russia and Ukraine