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Flashcards in Improving on nature Deck (19):

Describe pituitary gland

Growth hormone follicle stimulating hormone, antidiuretic hormone
Stimulates growth, controls testes and ovaries, causes reabsorption of water in kidneys


Describe thyroid gland

Thyroxine, raises BMR


Describe adrenal gland

Adrenaline, raises BMR, dilates blood vessels, prepares body for action


Describe pancreas

Insulin, lowers blood glucose conc


Describe ovary



Describe testis



Describe peptide hormones

Not able to pass through membrane easily as they're charged
Bind to receptor on membrane
Activates a second messenger in cytoplasm
Functional second messenger activates enzymes on transcription factors


Describe steroid hormones

Receptor inside cell, hormone binds to receptor
Hormone receptor complex acts as transcription factor


Why are hormones produced in vesicles?

Important that cells in endocrine that make hormones aren't affected by their products


Whats the difference between endocrine and exocrine

Endocrine glands don't have glands


Define hormone

Chemical messengers released into the blood


Describe creatine

Found in meat and fish
Increase large amounts of CP in muscles improving performance during short intense exercise
Diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting


Describe testosterone

Development of male sex organs
Characteristic changes - aggressiveness
Binds to androgen receptors and modify gene expression to alter development of cell
High BP fertility issues, kidney failure


Dsecribe erythropoietin?

Peptide hormone produced by kidneys
Stimulates formation of RBC in bone marrow in response to low oxygen levels
also produced with DNA teachnology - treats anaemia
Too many RBC increases risk of thrombosis


Against using drugs

Illegeal, unfair advantage, health risks, not fully informed


For using drugs

Up to the individual, drug free sport isn't fair anyway


Describe switching transcription off

• Protein repressor molecules attach to the promoter region on the DNA blocking attachment site for transcription factors and RNA polymerase. Or the protein repressor molecules can attach to the transcription factors.
• This prevents the formation of a transcription initiation complex


Describe switching transcription on

• Associated protein transcription factors and RNA polymerase bind to the DNA producing a transcription initiation complex.
• This complex binds to a section of DNA adjacent to gene to be transcribed
• This section is called the promoter region
• When the transcription initiation complex attaches to the promoter region allowing transcription to occur


Describe control of gene expression

• It is not just RNA polymerase that initiates transcription but a range of associated proteins known as transcription factors
• The result is sometimes known as a transcription initiation complex
• This binds to DNA adjacent to the gene to be transcribed in an area known as the promoter region
• Transcription can only occur when the complex has formed and correctly attached the DNA