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TOPIC 7 > Peak Performance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Peak Performance Deck (27):
1

What's aerobic capacity?

Ability to take in, transport and use oxygen

2

Describe heart rate

Everyone has a slightly different resting heart rate caused by many factors
Large heart- lower due to expelling more blood per beat

3

Define myogenic

Ability to contract without external nervous stimulation

4

What is stroke volume?

Volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle each time it contracts

5

What is the equation for cardiac output?

Stroke volume x heart rate

6

Describe how the heart beats

Depolarisation at the SAN generating an impulse spreading across right to left atria causing contraction
Impulses pass to ventricles via AVN following a delay
Impulses go to Purkyne fibres (conduct impulses to apex of ventricles)
Impulses spread up through ventricle walls causing contraction from apex upwards
blood squeezed into arteries

7

What is the SAN?

Sinoatrial node - small area of specialised muscle fibres locating in wall of right atrium below superior vena cava (Pacemaker)

8

Why is there a delay in heart beats?

Ensures atria have finished contracting and that the ventricles have filled with blood before contraction

9

What does the non-conducting layer do?

Prevent waves of electrical activity from being passed directly to the ventricles

10

What is an ECG?

Measures electrical activity of the heartbeat
Change in polarisation causes a small electrical current to be detected

11

Whats the P wave?

Depolarisation of the atria

12

Whats the PR interval

Time taken for impulses to be conducted from SAN arcoss to ventricles through AVN

13

Whats the QRS complex?

Wave of depolarisation

14

Whats the T wave

Repolarisation of ventricles

15

How is an ECG carried out?

Electrodes attached to chest

16

What is tidal volume?

volume of air inhaled and exhaled in one breath

17

What is basal metabolic rate?

rate of respiration

18

What is minute volume?

Volume of air inhaled in one minute

19

What is vital capacity?

Max amount of air a person can inhale and exhale

20

Describe slow twitch fibres?

Specialised for slower contraction and long periods of excerise
Red (lots of myoglobin)
Many mitochondria
Little sarcoplasmic reticulum
Low glycogen content
Capillaries
Fatigue-resistant

21

Describe fast twitch fibres?

Specialised for faster contraction
White (little of myoglobin)
Little mitochondria
Many sarcoplasmic reticulum
High glycogen content
Few Capillaries
Fatigue quickly

22

Which nerves are involved in controlling heart rate?

Sympathetic nerve (Increasese)and parasympathetic nerve (vagus nerve)(decreases)

23

What are the axis of ECG?

X = time
Y = electrical activity

24

How is heart rate increased?

Skeletal muscles contract and stretch receptors in muscles are stimulated sending impulses to the CCC increasing heart rate

25

How does increase heart rate increase cardiac output?

Increases venous return increasing stroke volume

26

How is cardiac output prevented from rising too far?

Pressure receptors in aorta and carotid atery send impulses back to CCC and send inhibitory impulses to SA node

27

Describe hormonal control of heart rate

Adrenaline directly influences SA node increasing heart rate