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Describe moderate exercise and immunity

Increases the number and activity of natural kills cells in blood and lymph


Describe vigourous exercise and immunity

• The number and activity of the following cells decreases:
o Natural killer cells
o Phagocytes
o B cells
o T helper cells (therefore less cytokines to activate lymphocytes so less antibodies produce)
• Therefore the specific immune response is suppressed as well as non-specific
• Damage to muscles may also cause an inflammatory response which reduce the available nonspecific immune cells available for infection in other areas.


Whats the problem with knees

Articular cartilage covering bone wears away so bones grind on each other leading to inflammation
Jumpers knee- kneecap doesn't glide
Sudden twists damage ligaments
Bursae cushion contact between bones, tendons and ligaments can swell up with extra fluid so may push against other tissues in the joint causing inflammation and tenderness


What and why use keyhole?

Large incisions caused bleeding, pain, risk of infection and prolonged recovery
repair damaged joints
Small incisions and small camera


Define arthroscopy

Keyhole on joints


Describe ligament structure in the knee

2 of 4 ligaments are cruciate - attached to end of femur and top of tibia
Posterior prevents knee from bending too far back, anterior = forwards
Ligament repaired and knee joint stabilised and replaced with graft from tendon


Whats prothesis

Artifical body part used to regain normal function


What are the advantages of exercise?

Increases HDL levels
Balance between energy
Improves mental well being
Reduces risk of cancers
Increases bone density


What is a natural killer cell?

Do not use specific antigen recognition but provide nonspecific immunity
Activated through cytokines and interferons although the exact mechanism is not yet understood
The killer cells release the protein perforin which make pores in the target cell membrane
This causes apoptosis which is programmed cell death e.g. digestive enzymes
Natural killer cells do not cause lysis


Describe how knee joints can be replaced by prosthetic joints

A metal device is inserted into the knee to replace damaged cartilage and bone
Knee joint and ends of leg bones replaced = smoother joint, cushioning reducing impact on the knee