In Class Unit 4.2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in In Class Unit 4.2 Deck (64):
1

Paradox of life

collective versus individual interests

2

Collective goods will be exploited unless..

maze is constraining, with out constraint people will always act in their own interest

3

Operations

set of rules of the game, authorized used of legitimate force

4

2 routes to avoiding tragedy

-socialization (people stealing firewood from park dont think its wrong to do so)
-social c ontrol (government function)

5

Government concerns

connective intérêts, good, integration

6

Key functions of government

-keep members secure from harm from others
-keep members secure from harm outside
-production of collective goods (dams, etc)

7

Culture is important for..

successful integration in the society that we find ourselves, i.e it helps us

8

Culture is not about ..... but it is about ...

what people do; the ideas that are behind what people do

9

Beliefs exists independent of..

truth value

10

Beliefs describe..

some aspect of collective reality

11

Beliefs are used to construct reality in..

-ordinary life
-extraordinary life

12

Beliefs provide assumptions used as..

substitute for direct experience with those we interact with and depend on

13

Belief systems are..

narratives for how the world works

14

Principle of falsifiability

if something is an open or closed system

15

Principle of falsifiability question. Can you imagine something empirical that would change your mind?

-if yes, open system
-if not, closed system

16

Cognitive components of culture

descriptions (beliefs). beliefs are descriptions of the way the world works

17

Evaluative components

prescriptions (values). When they state a value, they are telling you what you should be doing

18

Referents

what the thing refers to

19

Empirical world

world available to peoples sense (natural)

20

Super empirical world

world beyond our senses (supernatural)

21

Orientations

how you're looking at the things your interested in describing or prescribing

22

Individual as observer

person IN the world. looking

23

Individual as manipulator

person OVER the world. controlling

24

Individual as subordinated

person SUBJECTED to the world. experience consequences

25

Theology

set of cognitive beliefs. = mythology

26

Two components of theology, beliefs about..

-the way the world is
-a way of discovering how it is that things occur

27

Difference from science, science is a..

belief about the world comprehensibility about the senses

28

2 kinds of theological knowledge

-how things work
-why things work as they do

29

3 universal religious themes

-justice
-needless suffering
-death

30

Justice

people should receive in proportion to their contributions.

31

Justice ideal connection to norms

good fortune is deserved if conforming to norms

32

What challenges justice

reality of deviance

33

Needless suffering

apparenrtly senseless (ex: random shooting)

34

Theological answer to needless suffering

there is an answer, point to it all, even if unrevealed to you

35

Death

common issues of justice, sufferings, and death demand meeting and regions provide such

36

What regions supplies

-answers to questions that puzzle significant numbers
-answers to questions that cannot be answered empirically

37

Supernatural character of religion when institutionalized performs social functions for maintaining the pattern of the maze..

-unquestioned authority for group norms
-extraordinary reward punishments
-prioritize norms
-common mythology

38

The important region ____ a group creates problems for religion ____ groups

within; between

39

Religions are...

ideologies, closed system that give certianity in a risk-filled reality

40

Hierarchy of social justification

1. sanctions justified by norms
2. norms justified by values
3. nothing above values to justify

41

Only 2 ways to resolve values disagreements

-divorce (staying away)
-force

42

If you desperately want something to happen but lack technology/tools...

prone to magic

43

Types of magic

determinant, mechanisms by which effects are produced

44

Implications

-characters are dependent variables
-holding people responsible
-control
-everyone is looking glass

45

Socialization explains past acitions..

responsibility is about future actions

46

If controls aren't built into the person...

they will be built into physical and social environments

47

Everyone is a looking glass,

you are shaping other continuously. denying this doesn't reduce truth, only quality of socialization

48

Nature of action

meaningful, purposeful, intentional

49

Nature of feedback in an acting system

if people are going to have a goal, there must be some way to orient/regulate behaviour toward goal

50

4 components of acting system

1. reference signals (goal system is meeting)
2. sensing mechanisms (registers variables)
3. error signals (discrepancy between sensing mechanisms and reference signal)
4. effector mechanisms (systems response to error signal)

51

What learning means

non genetic change

52

2 types of change

-from inability to ability
-from ability to inability

53

Why do people learn

because of failure to get desired response from the environment

54

Frustration is a

necessary condition for learning

55

Cognitive reaction to frustration

surprise

56

Affective reaction to frustration

disappointment

57

Evaluative reaction to frustration

indignation

58

Not just enough to be frustrated you also need to be... to properly learn

shown an alternate route or behaviour

59

Collective goods

bought at the price of individual freedom

60

Societies that have more government have more..

mechanisms for social intervention

61

Societies that have more government have less..

individual freedom

62

Variable is level of government ,,

state or stateless

63

Translating strength calculation

-1-10 % diff = no relationship
-11-40 % diff = modest
-41-70 % diff = moderate
-71-100 % diff = strong

64

Form

what kind/type of connection relates the variable in the relationship