Flashcards in In Class Unit 4.2 Deck (64):
Paradox of life
collective versus individual interests
Collective goods will be exploited unless..
maze is constraining, with out constraint people will always act in their own interest
set of rules of the game, authorized used of legitimate force
2 routes to avoiding tragedy
-socialization (people stealing firewood from park dont think its wrong to do so)
-social c ontrol (government function)
connective intérêts, good, integration
Key functions of government
-keep members secure from harm from others
-keep members secure from harm outside
-production of collective goods (dams, etc)
Culture is important for..
successful integration in the society that we find ourselves, i.e it helps us
Culture is not about ..... but it is about ...
what people do; the ideas that are behind what people do
Beliefs exists independent of..
some aspect of collective reality
Beliefs are used to construct reality in..
Beliefs provide assumptions used as..
substitute for direct experience with those we interact with and depend on
Belief systems are..
narratives for how the world works
Principle of falsifiability
if something is an open or closed system
Principle of falsifiability question. Can you imagine something empirical that would change your mind?
-if yes, open system
-if not, closed system
Cognitive components of culture
descriptions (beliefs). beliefs are descriptions of the way the world works
prescriptions (values). When they state a value, they are telling you what you should be doing
what the thing refers to
world available to peoples sense (natural)
Super empirical world
world beyond our senses (supernatural)
how you're looking at the things your interested in describing or prescribing
Individual as observer
person IN the world. looking
Individual as manipulator
person OVER the world. controlling
Individual as subordinated
person SUBJECTED to the world. experience consequences
set of cognitive beliefs. = mythology
Two components of theology, beliefs about..
-the way the world is
-a way of discovering how it is that things occur
Difference from science, science is a..
belief about the world comprehensibility about the senses
2 kinds of theological knowledge
-how things work
-why things work as they do
3 universal religious themes
people should receive in proportion to their contributions.
Justice ideal connection to norms
good fortune is deserved if conforming to norms
What challenges justice
reality of deviance
apparenrtly senseless (ex: random shooting)
Theological answer to needless suffering
there is an answer, point to it all, even if unrevealed to you
common issues of justice, sufferings, and death demand meeting and regions provide such
What regions supplies
-answers to questions that puzzle significant numbers
-answers to questions that cannot be answered empirically
Supernatural character of religion when institutionalized performs social functions for maintaining the pattern of the maze..
-unquestioned authority for group norms
-extraordinary reward punishments
The important region ____ a group creates problems for religion ____ groups
ideologies, closed system that give certianity in a risk-filled reality
Hierarchy of social justification
1. sanctions justified by norms
2. norms justified by values
3. nothing above values to justify
Only 2 ways to resolve values disagreements
-divorce (staying away)
If you desperately want something to happen but lack technology/tools...
prone to magic
Types of magic
determinant, mechanisms by which effects are produced
-characters are dependent variables
-holding people responsible
-everyone is looking glass
Socialization explains past acitions..
responsibility is about future actions
If controls aren't built into the person...
they will be built into physical and social environments
Everyone is a looking glass,
you are shaping other continuously. denying this doesn't reduce truth, only quality of socialization
Nature of action
meaningful, purposeful, intentional
Nature of feedback in an acting system
if people are going to have a goal, there must be some way to orient/regulate behaviour toward goal
4 components of acting system
1. reference signals (goal system is meeting)
2. sensing mechanisms (registers variables)
3. error signals (discrepancy between sensing mechanisms and reference signal)
4. effector mechanisms (systems response to error signal)
What learning means
non genetic change
2 types of change
-from inability to ability
-from ability to inability
Why do people learn
because of failure to get desired response from the environment
Frustration is a
necessary condition for learning
Cognitive reaction to frustration
Affective reaction to frustration
Evaluative reaction to frustration
Not just enough to be frustrated you also need to be... to properly learn
shown an alternate route or behaviour
bought at the price of individual freedom
Societies that have more government have more..
mechanisms for social intervention
Societies that have more government have less..
Variable is level of government ,,
state or stateless
Translating strength calculation
-1-10 % diff = no relationship
-11-40 % diff = modest
-41-70 % diff = moderate
-71-100 % diff = strong