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Flashcards in Inductive generalisation Deck (16)
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1

Particular instances of things
e.g. you have a short temper, this carrot cake is delicious

Specific claims

2

Entire classes of things
e.g. emus can't fly, all carrot cake is delicious

Universal claims

3

Making generalisation about universal claims based on specific claims
e.g. Sample 1, 2, 3, 4. general conclusion

Inductive generalisation

4

from general to specific claim

Deductive reasoning

5

from specific to general claim

Inductive reasoning

6

Induction if done badly risks the fallacy...

hasty generalisation

7

Problem with induction

Is in itself an inductive argument (essentially begging the question). If it has happened lots, doesn't guarantee it will happen again.

8

no number of positive instances of a universal claim can guarantee the truth of a universal claim HOWEVER just one negative instance of a universal claim is sufficient to prove universal claim as false. This is called:

A logical asymmetry

9

checking all instances of a universal claim to ensure that there are no disconfirming examples (often hard to do though)

Complete enumeration

10

3 rules for good induction

1. Sample should be sufficiently numerous and various
2. Should look for both confirming and disconfirming examples
3. Should consider whether a link between two classes is plausible

11

Are inductive arguments valid?

No

12

For good induction a sample should be sufficiently numerous and various because

more variation/numerous = more representative = more certainty

13

General rule for how much variation you should have:

If you want to claims that S's are P, the sample of S's should vary in every property (other than being S) that might be responsible for their being P

14

For good induction you should look for both confirming and disconfirming examples because

a single negative instance is enough to disprove a universal claim (and if we can't find a negative, you can be more certain about the truth of the universal claim)

15

For good induction you should consider whether a link between two classes is plausible based on

based on other information we already know to show that it supports our claim
e.g. sun rises in east (claim), see it rise in east (reason), earth rotation (related class supporting claim)

16

Why is induction a good method of reasoning?

because it helps figure out how things are going to be based on how they have been in the past.