Truth, critical thinking and validity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Truth, critical thinking and validity Deck (23)
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1

What are the four branches of philosophy?

1. Metaphysics
2. Ethics
3. Epistemology
4. Logic

2

Metaphysics is

what is there/what exists

3

Epistemology is

the study of knowldege/rationality

4

Logic is

Study of rules of inference

5

Ethics is

What is good, what is flourishing?

6

Aristotle quote on what is truth

"Truth is saying of what is, that it is, and of what is not, that it is not"

7

what is truth

A correspondence to reality: a statement is true if and only if it corresponds to reality

8

Beliefs

Beliefs are our map of reality which we want to be as accurate as possible so we can navigate successfully because it accurately reflects reality.

9

To think critically is to

think logically and rationally with a motivation to arrive at truth

10

We think critically to get to truth so that

our beliefs can be true

11

Argument is

a sequence of statement and conclusion intended to establish the truth of a statement

12

Rhetoric

reliant on emotional power of certain words and phrases, lacks reasons

13

Standard form looks like

Premise 1
Premise 2
Conclusion

14

Principle of charity

when interpreting someone's statement you should assume and convey the best possible (but rational) interpretation

15

Danger of principle of charity

If it's a bad argument you might be inclined to not assess/accept it as bad (due to this principle). However, you should.

16

Reason why the principle of charity should be applied

If someone offers an argument for a claim, and you reconstruct it to look like a bad argument, you are no closer to knowing whether that claim is true or false. But if you reconstruct an argument to look like a good argument, then you are in a position to assess whether this argument is good evidence for the claim being advanced. You might still reject the claim, but now at least you have better reasons (e.g. the evidence provided is poor) to reject it than you would with the bad reconstruction.

17

Valid argument

Premises guarantee the conclusion

18

Sound argument

Valid arguments with true premises (concerns structure AND content). Conclusion does not have to be true.

19

No invalid argument is sound, not all valid arguments are sound. T or F?

True

20

Fallacy

An error in reasoning

21

Fallacious arguments can lead to true conclusions, but they don't give us a good reason to think the conclusion is true. T or F?

True

22

Formal fallacies

Concern structure of argument

23

Informal fallacies

Concern content of argument