Flashcards in Truth, critical thinking and validity Deck (23)
What are the four branches of philosophy?
what is there/what exists
the study of knowldege/rationality
Study of rules of inference
What is good, what is flourishing?
Aristotle quote on what is truth
"Truth is saying of what is, that it is, and of what is not, that it is not"
what is truth
A correspondence to reality: a statement is true if and only if it corresponds to reality
Beliefs are our map of reality which we want to be as accurate as possible so we can navigate successfully because it accurately reflects reality.
To think critically is to
think logically and rationally with a motivation to arrive at truth
We think critically to get to truth so that
our beliefs can be true
a sequence of statement and conclusion intended to establish the truth of a statement
reliant on emotional power of certain words and phrases, lacks reasons
Standard form looks like
Principle of charity
when interpreting someone's statement you should assume and convey the best possible (but rational) interpretation
Danger of principle of charity
If it's a bad argument you might be inclined to not assess/accept it as bad (due to this principle). However, you should.
Reason why the principle of charity should be applied
If someone offers an argument for a claim, and you reconstruct it to look like a bad argument, you are no closer to knowing whether that claim is true or false. But if you reconstruct an argument to look like a good argument, then you are in a position to assess whether this argument is good evidence for the claim being advanced. You might still reject the claim, but now at least you have better reasons (e.g. the evidence provided is poor) to reject it than you would with the bad reconstruction.
Premises guarantee the conclusion
Valid arguments with true premises (concerns structure AND content). Conclusion does not have to be true.
No invalid argument is sound, not all valid arguments are sound. T or F?
An error in reasoning
Fallacious arguments can lead to true conclusions, but they don't give us a good reason to think the conclusion is true. T or F?
Concern structure of argument