Flashcards in Industry Deck (70):
What is the purpose of primary industries?
Acquiring raw materials, aka extractive production
What are some examples of primary industries?
Mining, sapping, fishing, farming
What is the purpose of secondary industries?
Converting raw materials into components
What are some examples of secondary industries?
Making plastic from oil, assembling roads, building houses and bridges
What is the purpose of tertiary industries?
Commercial services that support the production process
What are some examples of tertiary industries?
Insurance, transport, advertising, teaching, warehousing, health care
What is the purpose of quaternary industries?
Consists of intellectual activities
What are some examples of quaternary industries?
Government, culture, libraries, education, technology (high tech developments)
What is intensive farming?
In densely populated areas where the land value is high, small farms, lots of workers needed
What do intensive farms produce?
Veggies, dairy, poultry - perishables that need to be marketed quickly
What do extensive farms produce?
Grains, cattle - crops and animals
What is extensive farming?
In less dense areas where lots of land is available for low prices, mechanized
What are some factors affecting farm type?
Money, climate, labour, market, land
What are some economic factors affecting farm type
Cost of land, proximity to market, competition
Problems and solutions with the farming industry?
Growing season too short/cool = grow a crop with shorter growing season, start seedlings in a greenhouse
Insufficient moisture = use growing methods that preserve moisture, develop crops that need less water
Excess of harmful insects = use chemical insecticides, introduce predator insects
What are non-commercial forests?
Trees that are unlikely to be harvested, usually in the north
What are the non-commercial forest regions?
What are the commercial forest regions?
Boreal, Taiga, West Coast, Montane, Mixed Forest
What are commercial forests?
Trees that can be harvested, usually in southern temperatures and precipitation levels
What are hardwood forests and what % of forests?
12% of forests - with deciduous trees
What are mixed forests and what % of forests?
22% of forests - with deciduous AND coniferous
What are softwood forests and what % of forests?
66% of forests, with coniferous trees
What are coniferous trees?
Cone-bearing trees with needle leaves (pine, fir, spruce)
What are deciduous trees?
Trees who lose their leaves every year (poplar, maple, birch)
What are the methods for cutting down trees?
Some problems of the forestry industry?
Forest fires, destruction of wildlife, too few trees are replanted
What are the types of fish?
Pelagic, groundfish, shellfish
What are pelagic fish? Give some examples
Fish that feed and are caught near the surface (salmon, herring, tuna, mackerel)
What are groundfish? Give some examples
Fish that feed and are caught near the ocean floor (cof, halibut)
What are shellfish? Give some exampls
Molluscs and crustaceans (shrimp, lobster, oyster, mussel)
What are the methods to catching fire?
Purse siene, stern otter trawl, gill net
What is aquaculture?
The production of fish and other marine products on fish farms
What is inshore fishing?
Commercial fishing that takes place within a few km of the shoreline. Small fishing boats go out to sea and return to shore each day
What is offshore fishing?
Commercial fishing done from boats longer than 25m. The boats stay at sea several days before returning to shore with their catch
Why did the East Coast Fishery collapse?
Overfishing, improved fishing technology, uncontrolled foreign fishing, destructive fishing practices, changes in natural conditions
Why was the East Coast Fishery so treasured?
Plankton is abundant there and therefore so is the fish
Why was the West Coast Fishery so treasured?
Lots of salmon
Why did the West Coast Fishery collapse?
Overfishing, changes in the environment, lack of a salmon fish treaty
What are some issues the West Coast Fishery is facing?
1. Difficulty balancing salmon supply between comercial, sport, and aboriginal fishing
2. The Aquaculture business is building - making it a lot harder for wild salmon catchers to earn a living
What type of mineral is cobalt?
What type of mineral is diamond?
What type of mineral is coal?
What type of mineral is platinum?
What type of mineral is iron?
What type of mineral is lead?
What type of mineral is salt?
What type of mineral is sand?
What type of mineral is nickel?
What are the fossil fuel minerals?
Oil, coal, oil sands, natural gas
What are the 3 methods of mining?
Strip mining, open pit mining, underground mining
What is strip mining?
A method used to mine oil sands, coal, and other minerals located in horizontal layers near the surface
What is open pit mining?
A method used to mine minerals that are found near the surface, but that can also mine minerals that are deep in the ground
What is underground mining?
A method used to extract mineral ores located deep in the earth
What is a mineral ore?
A naturally occurring solid substance in which minerals can be extracted
Why is mining so important?
Canada is the biggest exporter of minerals
What are some problems facing the mining industry?
1. Negative effect on environment
2. Staying competitive
3. Abandoned mines are a source of pollution
What is renewable energy?
Energy from a source that is not drained when used (solar, wind)
What is nonrenewable energy?
Energy sources that exist in a limited amount on Earth (oil and gas)
Pros of natural gas?
- Burns efficiently
- No waste
- Emits less CO2 than coal and oil
Cons of natural gas?
- Emits C02
Pros of hydroelectricity?
- Cheap, local
Cons of hydroelectricity?
- People and animals may need to move for construction of plant
- May prevent fish from moving around due to location
Pros of coal?
- Cheap, plentiful
- Easy to store
- Easily converted to energy
Cons of coal?
- Expensive to transport
- Emits CO2
Pros of nuclear energy?
- Plants don't require much land
- Doesn't produce greenhouse gases
Cons of nuclear energy?
- Lots of waste
Pros of oil?
- Creates jobs for local economy
- No other energy source can make cars go so fast
Cons of oil?
- Risky to transport oil
Pros of thermoelectricity?
- Limitless supply
- No products of combustion