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Flashcards in Industry Deck (70):
1

What is the purpose of primary industries?

Acquiring raw materials, aka extractive production

2

What are some examples of primary industries?

Mining, sapping, fishing, farming

3

What is the purpose of secondary industries?

Converting raw materials into components

4

What are some examples of secondary industries?

Making plastic from oil, assembling roads, building houses and bridges

5

What is the purpose of tertiary industries?

Commercial services that support the production process

6

What are some examples of tertiary industries?

Insurance, transport, advertising, teaching, warehousing, health care

7

What is the purpose of quaternary industries?

Consists of intellectual activities

8

What are some examples of quaternary industries?

Government, culture, libraries, education, technology (high tech developments)

9

What is intensive farming?

In densely populated areas where the land value is high, small farms, lots of workers needed

10

What do intensive farms produce?

Veggies, dairy, poultry - perishables that need to be marketed quickly

11

What do extensive farms produce?

Grains, cattle - crops and animals

12

What is extensive farming?

In less dense areas where lots of land is available for low prices, mechanized

13

What are some factors affecting farm type?

Money, climate, labour, market, land

14

What are some economic factors affecting farm type

Cost of land, proximity to market, competition

15

Problems and solutions with the farming industry?

Growing season too short/cool = grow a crop with shorter growing season, start seedlings in a greenhouse

Insufficient moisture = use growing methods that preserve moisture, develop crops that need less water

Excess of harmful insects = use chemical insecticides, introduce predator insects

16

What are non-commercial forests?

Trees that are unlikely to be harvested, usually in the north

17

What are the non-commercial forest regions?

Arctic, Praries

18

What are the commercial forest regions?

Boreal, Taiga, West Coast, Montane, Mixed Forest

19

What are commercial forests?

Trees that can be harvested, usually in southern temperatures and precipitation levels

20

What are hardwood forests and what % of forests?

12% of forests - with deciduous trees

21

What are mixed forests and what % of forests?

22% of forests - with deciduous AND coniferous

22

What are softwood forests and what % of forests?

66% of forests, with coniferous trees

23

What are coniferous trees?

Cone-bearing trees with needle leaves (pine, fir, spruce)

24

What are deciduous trees?

Trees who lose their leaves every year (poplar, maple, birch)

25

What are the methods for cutting down trees?

Clear-cutting
Shelterwood logging
Selective cutting

26

Some problems of the forestry industry?

Forest fires, destruction of wildlife, too few trees are replanted

27

What are the types of fish?

Pelagic, groundfish, shellfish

28

What are pelagic fish? Give some examples

Fish that feed and are caught near the surface (salmon, herring, tuna, mackerel)

29

What are groundfish? Give some examples

Fish that feed and are caught near the ocean floor (cof, halibut)

30

What are shellfish? Give some exampls

Molluscs and crustaceans (shrimp, lobster, oyster, mussel)

31

What are the methods to catching fire?

Purse siene, stern otter trawl, gill net

32

What is aquaculture?

The production of fish and other marine products on fish farms

33

What is inshore fishing?

Commercial fishing that takes place within a few km of the shoreline. Small fishing boats go out to sea and return to shore each day

34

What is offshore fishing?

Commercial fishing done from boats longer than 25m. The boats stay at sea several days before returning to shore with their catch

35

Why did the East Coast Fishery collapse?

Overfishing, improved fishing technology, uncontrolled foreign fishing, destructive fishing practices, changes in natural conditions

36

Why was the East Coast Fishery so treasured?

Plankton is abundant there and therefore so is the fish

37

Why was the West Coast Fishery so treasured?

Lots of salmon

38

Why did the West Coast Fishery collapse?

Overfishing, changes in the environment, lack of a salmon fish treaty

39

What are some issues the West Coast Fishery is facing?

1. Difficulty balancing salmon supply between comercial, sport, and aboriginal fishing
2. The Aquaculture business is building - making it a lot harder for wild salmon catchers to earn a living

40

What type of mineral is cobalt?

Metallic

41

What type of mineral is diamond?

Industrial

42

What type of mineral is coal?

Fossil Fuels

43

What type of mineral is platinum?

Metallic

44

What type of mineral is iron?

Metallic

45

What type of mineral is lead?

Metallic

46

What type of mineral is salt?

Industrial

47

What type of mineral is sand?

Industrial

48

What type of mineral is nickel?

Metallic

49

What are the fossil fuel minerals?

Oil, coal, oil sands, natural gas

50

What are the 3 methods of mining?

Strip mining, open pit mining, underground mining

51

What is strip mining?

A method used to mine oil sands, coal, and other minerals located in horizontal layers near the surface

52

What is open pit mining?

A method used to mine minerals that are found near the surface, but that can also mine minerals that are deep in the ground

53

What is underground mining?

A method used to extract mineral ores located deep in the earth

54

What is a mineral ore?

A naturally occurring solid substance in which minerals can be extracted

55

Why is mining so important?

Canada is the biggest exporter of minerals

56

What are some problems facing the mining industry?

1. Negative effect on environment
2. Staying competitive
3. Abandoned mines are a source of pollution

57

What is renewable energy?

Energy from a source that is not drained when used (solar, wind)

58

What is nonrenewable energy?

Energy sources that exist in a limited amount on Earth (oil and gas)

59

Pros of natural gas?

- Burns efficiently
- No waste
- Emits less CO2 than coal and oil

60

Cons of natural gas?

- Nonrenewable
- Emits C02
- Explosive

61

Pros of hydroelectricity?

- Cheap, local

62

Cons of hydroelectricity?

- People and animals may need to move for construction of plant
- May prevent fish from moving around due to location

63

Pros of coal?

- Cheap, plentiful
- Easy to store
- Easily converted to energy

64

Cons of coal?

- Nonrenewable
- Expensive to transport
- Emits CO2

65

Pros of nuclear energy?

- Plants don't require much land
- Doesn't produce greenhouse gases

66

Cons of nuclear energy?

- Nonrenewable
- Lots of waste

67

Pros of oil?

- Creates jobs for local economy
- No other energy source can make cars go so fast

68

Cons of oil?

- Nonrenewable
- Expensive
- Risky to transport oil

69

Pros of thermoelectricity?

- Limitless supply
- No products of combustion

70

Cons of thermoelectricty?

- Has to drill a lot into Earth's crust for energy
- Sulfur and silica emissions