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Flashcards in Inequality Seminar Deck (21)
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What is sociology?

The study of the development, structure and functioning of the human society


How does sociology come bear reference to healthcare?

Sutdies the interactions of those engaged in medical occupations - doctor patient relationships

Sociology studies the way people make sense of illness

Studies the interactions of healthcare professionals in their work setting


What is the sick role of the patient?

Sick role-patient

•The sick role exempts ill people from their daily responsibilities

•Patient is not responsible for being ill and is regarded as unable to get better without the help of a professional

•Patient must seek help from a healthcare professional

•Patient is under a social obligation to get better as soon as possible to be able to take up social responsibilities again


What is the sick role of a healthcare professional

Sick role-healthcare professional role

•Professional must be objective and not judge patients morally

•Professional must not act out of self-interest or greed but put patient’s interests first

•He/she must obey a professional code of practice

•Professional must have and maintain the necessary knowledge and skills to treat patients

•Professional has the right to examine patient intimately, prescribe treatment and has wide autonomy in medical practice


What are the socio/economic factors that influence our health?






•financial security

•health system 



How does gender affect health?

General trends:

•Men have a higher mortality at every age


•Women have a higher morbidity


•Women consult more frequently in General Practice settings




Heart disease and stroke is more common in males

Men and women have equal smoking rates

Men more likley than women to meet activity targets

Men more likley ot attend a and e than females

Females more likley to receive carers allowance than males


How does ethnicity affect health?

Indians and pakistanis have high prevalence of diabetes

Pakistani, asian, African, carribean or black respondants are less likely to drink alcohol at a hazardous or harmful level than the national average

Pakistani and asian groups are less likley to smoke than the national average

White brits are least likely to eat five portions of fruit or veg per day

•Low socio-economic groups in ethnic communities have higher morbidity rates than their non ethnic counterparts


How does housing affect health?

People living in cold homes are more likley to suffer from mental health, respiratory problems


How does education affect health?

Those with higher levels of education tend to be healthier than those of similar income who are less well educated e.g. better understanding of health, more effective engagement with health care services such as screening programmes


What are the effects of employment?

•Provides social contacts

•Provides status in society

•Provides a purpose in life

•Unemployment is associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality


What are the benefits of cycling and walking?

Improved mental health, reduced risk of premature death, prevention of chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, dementia and cancer. Walking and cycling are also effective ways of integrating, and increasing, levels of physical activity into everyday life for the majority of the population


What are health inequalitites according to the WHO?

The WHO states that health inequalities can be defined as the differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups


How does the health of children in deprived areas compare to the health of children in the least deprived areas?

•they are more likely to have lower birth weight, poorer dental health, higher obesity and higher rates of teenage pregnancy


deaths from coronary heart disease, inequalities have decreased, but others such as mental health, smoking, alcohol and drug misuse remain significantly worse in the most deprived parts of Scotland.


How does being homeless affect health?

Death by unnatural cause is 4 times more likely

Suicide is 35 times more likley

Rough sleepers are more likely to be assulted than the average person

Often issues with substance addiction - makes it hard to hold down a tennancy

Incidence of HepC, HIV and TB are much higher in the homeless population

They experience poorer oral health

Less likely to be registered with a GP and more likely to attend A and E


What are the factors that prevent people with learning disabilty accessing ood quality care?

•a lack of accessible transport links

•patients not being identified as having a learning disability

•staff having little understanding about learning disability

•failure to recognise that a person with a learning disability is unwell

•failure to make a correct diagnosis

•anxiety or a lack of confidence for people with a learning disability

•lack of joint working from different care providers

•not enough involvement allowed from carers

•inadequate aftercare or follow-up care


What are the challenges of refugees trying to access care in the UK?

Language barriers

Refugees with urgent and complex medical conditions are less llikely to access specialist care in a timely manner

Rudimentary health care from original country may leave many patients with poorly controlled chronic medical conditions

Most refugees are unfamiliar with preventative medicine and primary health care

Depression, anxiety and PTSD are common and often undrecognised.


How does being a prisoner affect health?

Sentencing offence often coincides with alcohol use

Family problems as a result of drinking are more common

Higher use of illicit drugs

They live in the poorest areas of Scotland


•Their health inequalities are further exacerbated by the even higher rates of premature death that ex-prisoners experience, related to violence, accidents, substance misuse and suicide



How can sexual orientation affect health?

More likely to suffer from depression 

More likely to self-harm

Potential for inapproproaite treatment due to gender identity / orientation

Homophobic staff

Reluctance to disclos information due to fear of unwanted repurcussions


What is the role of voluntary sector organisations?

•Provide a means of engaging effectively with communities and individuals 

•Deliver a range of services which may help to reduce health inequalities, including:

  – Promoting healthy living to groups of people who may not use  mainstream services

   – Supporting people to access relevant services NHS Health Scotland


What are the benefits of volunteering?

•Gain confidence. Volunteering can help you gain confidence by giving you the chance to try something new and build a real sense of achievement

•Make a difference. Volunteering can have a real and valuable positive affect on people, communities and society in general

•Meet people. Volunteering can help you meet different kinds of people and make new friends

•Be part of a community. Volunteering can help you feel part of something outside your friends and family

•Learn new skills. Volunteering can help you learn new skills, gain experience and sometimes even qualifications

•Take on a challenge. Through volunteering you can challenge yourself to try something different, achieve personal goals, practice using your skills and discover hidden talents

•Have fun! Most volunteers have a great time, regardless of why they do it.