What is sociology?
The study of the development, structure and functioning of the human society
How does sociology come bear reference to healthcare?
Sutdies the interactions of those engaged in medical occupations - doctor patient relationships
Sociology studies the way people make sense of illness
Studies the interactions of healthcare professionals in their work setting
What is the sick role of the patient?
•The sick role exempts ill people from their daily responsibilities
•Patient is not responsible for being ill and is regarded as unable to get better without the help of a professional
•Patient must seek help from a healthcare professional
•Patient is under a social obligation to get better as soon as possible to be able to take up social responsibilities again
What is the sick role of a healthcare professional
Sick role-healthcare professional role
•Professional must be objective and not judge patients morally
•Professional must not act out of self-interest or greed but put patient’s interests first
•He/she must obey a professional code of practice
•Professional must have and maintain the necessary knowledge and skills to treat patients
•Professional has the right to examine patient intimately, prescribe treatment and has wide autonomy in medical practice
What are the socio/economic factors that influence our health?
How does gender affect health?
•Men have a higher mortality at every age
•Women have a higher morbidity
•Women consult more frequently in General Practice settings
Heart disease and stroke is more common in males
Men and women have equal smoking rates
Men more likley than women to meet activity targets
Men more likley ot attend a and e than females
Females more likley to receive carers allowance than males
How does ethnicity affect health?
Indians and pakistanis have high prevalence of diabetes
Pakistani, asian, African, carribean or black respondants are less likely to drink alcohol at a hazardous or harmful level than the national average
Pakistani and asian groups are less likley to smoke than the national average
White brits are least likely to eat five portions of fruit or veg per day
•Low socio-economic groups in ethnic communities have higher morbidity rates than their non ethnic counterparts
How does housing affect health?
People living in cold homes are more likley to suffer from mental health, respiratory problems
How does education affect health?
Those with higher levels of education tend to be healthier than those of similar income who are less well educated e.g. better understanding of health, more effective engagement with health care services such as screening programmes
What are the effects of employment?
•Provides social contacts
•Provides status in society
•Provides a purpose in life
•Unemployment is associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality
What are the benefits of cycling and walking?
Improved mental health, reduced risk of premature death, prevention of chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, dementia and cancer. Walking and cycling are also effective ways of integrating, and increasing, levels of physical activity into everyday life for the majority of the population
What are health inequalitites according to the WHO?
The WHO states that health inequalities can be defined as the differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups
How does the health of children in deprived areas compare to the health of children in the least deprived areas?
•they are more likely to have lower birth weight, poorer dental health, higher obesity and higher rates of teenage pregnancy
deaths from coronary heart disease, inequalities have decreased, but others such as mental health, smoking, alcohol and drug misuse remain significantly worse in the most deprived parts of Scotland.
How does being homeless affect health?
Death by unnatural cause is 4 times more likely
Suicide is 35 times more likley
Rough sleepers are more likely to be assulted than the average person
Often issues with substance addiction - makes it hard to hold down a tennancy
Incidence of HepC, HIV and TB are much higher in the homeless population
They experience poorer oral health
Less likely to be registered with a GP and more likely to attend A and E
What are the factors that prevent people with learning disabilty accessing ood quality care?
•a lack of accessible transport links
•patients not being identified as having a learning disability
•staff having little understanding about learning disability
•failure to recognise that a person with a learning disability is unwell
•failure to make a correct diagnosis
•anxiety or a lack of confidence for people with a learning disability
•lack of joint working from different care providers
•not enough involvement allowed from carers
•inadequate aftercare or follow-up care
What are the challenges of refugees trying to access care in the UK?
Refugees with urgent and complex medical conditions are less llikely to access specialist care in a timely manner
Rudimentary health care from original country may leave many patients with poorly controlled chronic medical conditions
Most refugees are unfamiliar with preventative medicine and primary health care
Depression, anxiety and PTSD are common and often undrecognised.
How does being a prisoner affect health?
Sentencing offence often coincides with alcohol use
Family problems as a result of drinking are more common
Higher use of illicit drugs
They live in the poorest areas of Scotland
•Their health inequalities are further exacerbated by the even higher rates of premature death that ex-prisoners experience, related to violence, accidents, substance misuse and suicide
How can sexual orientation affect health?
More likely to suffer from depression
More likely to self-harm
Potential for inapproproaite treatment due to gender identity / orientation
Reluctance to disclos information due to fear of unwanted repurcussions
What is the role of voluntary sector organisations?
•Provide a means of engaging effectively with communities and individuals
•Deliver a range of services which may help to reduce health inequalities, including:
– Promoting healthy living to groups of people who may not use mainstream services
– Supporting people to access relevant services NHS Health Scotland
What are the benefits of volunteering?
•Gain confidence. Volunteering can help you gain confidence by giving you the chance to try something new and build a real sense of achievement
•Make a difference. Volunteering can have a real and valuable positive affect on people, communities and society in general
•Meet people. Volunteering can help you meet different kinds of people and make new friends
•Be part of a community. Volunteering can help you feel part of something outside your friends and family
•Learn new skills. Volunteering can help you learn new skills, gain experience and sometimes even qualifications
•Take on a challenge. Through volunteering you can challenge yourself to try something different, achieve personal goals, practice using your skills and discover hidden talents
•Have fun! Most volunteers have a great time, regardless of why they do it.