Flashcards in INFANT-CAREGIVER ATTACHMENT Deck (19):
What is an attachment?
A close two-way emotional bond between individuals in which each person sees the other as essential for their own emotional security
What 4 signs are displayed when an attachment has formed?
Joy on reunion
Orientation towards each other
What is reciprocity?
A two-way interaction where both people actively contribute and respond to each other
What is interactional synchrony?
The coordination of micro-level social behaviour
How did Brazleton describe reciprocity?
Like a dance
Which research found that interactional synchrony is important for early development?
Isabella studied 30 mothers and found that higher levels of synchrony were associated with a higher quality attachment
What are the positives of studying infant-caregiver attachment?
Babies = no demand characteristics
High ecological validity
Filmed for second opinions = removes subjectivity
What are the negatives of studying infant-caregiver attachment?
Babies = reliance on inference
Ethics = psychological harm
Overt observation = parental demand characteristics
How has research on infant-caregiver attachment changed in modern society?
More focus on the role of the father
Why are reciprocity and interactional synchrony crucial to childhood development?
BROWN found that sensitive interaction is a great predictor of secure-attachment
What observation did Bowlby make about the role of the father?
They play a different familial role to mothers - they are more likely to engage in physical play and act as the child's preferred play companion
How does Grossman's longitudinal study support Bowlby's observation?
Found that mother's attachment had a bigger impact on childhood development, but the father's role is still important as engaging in play and stimulation
What evidence is there to suggest that the gender of the caregiver does not matter?
FIELD analysed footage of parental interaction, found that primary caregiver fathers engage in imitative interaction similar to that of primary caregiver mothers
= responsiveness > gender
How does Brown's research support Field's conclusion?
Found that sensitive interaction is a great predictor of secure-attachment
Why is there inconsistent findings on the role of the father?
Psychologists investigate different things - some focus on the father as a secondary attachment figure, some focus on the father as a primary attachment figure
What research is there to challenge the idea that fathers have distinct roles as secondary attachment figures?
MCCALLUM + GOLOMBOK found that children in same-sex households don't develop differently to those in heterosexual households
What did Schaffer and Emerson's study find about infant attachment?
When infants form a specific attachment, it is the biological mother 65% of the time
= more likely to attach to mother first
What could be a biological explanation for less fathers being primary attachment figures?
Female hormone oestrogen could cause mothers to be more biologically pre-disposed to being nurturing attachment figures