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Flashcards in LEARNING THEORY [attachment explanations] Deck (16):
1

Who proposed the idea of learning theory as an explanation for attachment?

DOLLARD AND MILLER

2

What has this explanation sometimes been called and why?

'Cupboard love' due to the emphasis it places on food provision

3

What are the 2 components in the two-process model of learning theory?

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
OPERANT CONDITIONING

4

What is classical conditioning?

Learning through association

5

What is operant conditioning?

Shaping and maintaining behaviours through rewards and consequences

6

What is the process of classical conditioning?

US = UR
US + NS = UR
CS = CR

7

What are the two types of operant conditioning?

POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT

8

What is positive reinforcement?

Repeating behaviour as it results in a reward

9

What is negative reinforcement?

Repeating behaviour as it results in the reduction or avoidance of something unpleasant

10

How might classical conditioning occur in relation to attachment?

An infant associates a caregiver with being fed, therefore the conditioned response becomes that of pleasure and removing hunger

11

How might operant conditioning occur in relation to attachment?

- When the infant cries, they receive comfort
- When the caregiver feeds/comforts the infant, crying is removed

12

How does the learning theory of attachment draw on the concept of drives?

It focuses on drive reduction
- hunger is a primary drive, to reduce that drive, children form an attachment to a caregiver
= attachment is a secondary drive

13

How do animal studies challenge the learning theory of attachment?

- LORENZ' GEESE imprinted before they were fed
- HARLOW'S MONKEYS attached to contact comfort not food

14

How do human studies challenge the learning theory of attachment?

SCHAFFER AND EMERSON - 39% of infants attached to someone that didn't feed them, and multiple attachments were formed

15

What factors of forming attachments does learning theory ignore?

Complex interactions such as reciprocity and interactional synchrony are ignored in 'cupboard love' but are proven to create the best quality attachments

16

What is a new learning theory explanation that is more credible?

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
- suggests that social behaviour is acquired through modelling behaviour off caregivers