Flashcards in LORENZ AND HARLOW [animal studies] Deck (22):
What did Lorenz study in animals?
How did Lorenz investigate imprinting in animals?
He compared geese hatched normally by their mother and geese hatched in an incubator with him being the first thing they saw
What results did Lorenz find?
The geese hatched in the incubator followed him everywhere, whilst the control group followed their mother
What did Lorenz find about these bonds?
They were IRREVERSIBLE and affected sexual imprinting as well
What did Lorenz identify about the time limit for imprinting after birth?
There is a CRITICAL PERIOD in which the geese had to imprint on an attachment figure
What happened if no attachment was formed during the critical period?
An attachment would never be formed
What did Lorenz discover about sexual imprinting?
Adult mate preferences are determined by the species they first imprint on
- A PEACOCK raised in a reptile house imprinted on GIANT TORTOISES, later displayed mating behaviour towards them
What is the conclusion of Lorenz' study?
Imprinting is a crucial and permanent part of development for birds
How can Lorenz' research be applied to humans?
Shows the importance of early attachments and the impact on adult behaviours, the critical period was later extended to humans by Bowlby
Why is it inaccurate to apply Lorenz' research to humans?
The mammalian attachment system is very different to that in birds, therefore it has low generalisability
How has Lorenz' conclusion been challenged?
SEXUAL IMPRINTING MAY NOT BE PERMANENT - Guiton found that chickens that imprinted on yellow washing up gloves would initially try and mate, but learn better and mate with chickens instead
What did Harlow study in animals?
The importance of contact comfort
How did Harlow investigate the importance of contact comfort?
He reared baby monkeys with two wire 'mothers', one covered in cloth, different 'mothers' dispensed milk in different conditions
What results did Harlow find?
The monkeys would cuddle and seek the cloth covered mother for comfort despite which one dispensed milk
= comfort was more important than food in forming an attachment
What did Harlow find when he observed the monkeys into adulthood?
Those reared with a wire mother were extremely dysfunctional & those with a cloth mother never developed normal social behaviour
- they were aggressive, bred less, and neglected or even killed their children
What do Harlow's adulthood observations show?
Maternal deprivation has a permanent effect = model behaviour is necessary for the internal working model
What did Harlow propose as the critical period?
What is the theoretical value of Harlow's conclusions?
They have affected psychologists' understanding of attachment, showing the importance of comfort and quality in early attachment in order to develop properly as an adult
How does Harlow's research have practical value?
It has been applied to helped neglected children with social care, as well as the care of neglected monkeys in zoos
How have the ethics of Harlow's research been criticised?
The monkeys suffered greatly, and was considered to be human-like
What is the counter-argument to criticisms of Harlow's ethics?
The research was important enough to justify the suffering