Infant Disorders Flashcards Preview

253-Green Patho > Infant Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infant Disorders Deck (24):
1

What is a cleft lip? what does it look like?

Can vary from an indentation to a fissure

May be unilateral or bilateral gap in upper lip extending to the nose

2

Incidence of cleft lip

1 in 700 live births

3

Etiology of cleft lip

teratogens (any factors that effect development of fetus)

i.e smoking, viral infections, folic acid deficiency

4

(CL) What is the issue during development?

When is the critical period?

maxillary and ansal str do not fuse (wk 5-8 critical period)

5

What other defect commonly comes along with cleft lift

Cleft palate

6

Tell me all about cleft palate

including incidence, etiologic, critical period, tx

Incomplete fusion of palatine strs (wk 9-12) (bone str of skull- hard palate)
Strong link to smoking in pregnancy
~ 1 in 2000 births
Malformed nasal strs?
Sx required

7

What is pyloric stenosis?

Muscle hypertrophy at pylorus (distal end of stomach) leading to constriction

8

When does pyloric stenosis begin?

2-8 weeks after births
(not congenital, but a functional problem)

9

Who more likely to develop pyloric stenosis? incidence?

~1 in 1000 births

4:1 Male to Female

10

Etiology of pyloric stenosis

Idiopathic

Linked to hypergastrinemia, PGE (local hormone) & erythromycin exposure (medication side effects)

11

Path leading to MNFTS of Pyloric stenosis

Hypertrophy -> constriction -> inflm -> obstr

Inflm is what causes obstr

MNFTS- Projectile vomiting, dehydration, malnourishment

12

Dx and Tx of pyloric stenosis

Hx and Px
US ( and palpation to suggest it)

Tx involves Sx

13

What is gastroesophageal reflux and what is it's incidence in infants?

Gastric reflux via distal esophageal sphincter r/t incomplete closure

Common GI problem (~50% incidence)
(0-3 months common)

14

Etiology of gastroesophageal reflux

Neuromuscular - it is a functional problem, not str or congenital

15

Path and Complications of gastroesophageal reflux

Gastric contents -> esop -> esophagitis?

Growth problems?

16

how is gastroesophageal reflux treated?

Mostly self limiting (~1yr) (But requires attention)

Symptomatic tx (antacid, PPI, H2RA)
Positioning
Modify feeding
Modify Feed (small thick meals)
Fundoplication ? (limited use, fortifying sphincter)

17

What is Hirschsprung Disease? Incidence?

Disorder sometimes called megacolon often developing in infancy related to inadequate stimulation of peristalsis in colon.
~ 1 in 5000 births

18

Etiology of Hirschsprung Disease?

•RET gene mutation, CHr 10

Codes for Proteins are involved in cell signaling for formation of tissue

Disorder is r/t neural tissue in the colon (neural innervation of muscle required for peristalsis)

19

Patho of Hirschsprung Disease

Tx?

Areas of colon lack PS ganglia -> no peristalsis (localized) -> accum of contents -> colon distention -> abdm distention.

Perf possible and peritonitis

20

What is Intussusception?

Intestine invaginates into adjoining section

21

Where is Intussusception like to occur?

Mostly at ileocecal valve (r/t smaller vessel pushing into larger diameter vessel)

22

Incidence of Intussusception

1-4 in 1000 birth

23

Describe the Patho and potential complications of Intussusception

invagination -> obstr -> inflm -> edema -> ischemia

necrosis, perf and peritonitis possible

24

Tx of Intussusception

Hydrostatic reduction
Water-soluble contrast medium and air pressure

Some require Sx