infectious of cats Flashcards Preview

small animal medicine > infectious of cats > Flashcards

Flashcards in infectious of cats Deck (78)
Loading flashcards...
1

main mode of transmission of bartonella

fleas

2

T/F
bartonella is most common in dry, cooler temp regions

FALSE -- warm and humid places

3

what is the flea that transmits bartonella

Ctenocephalides felis

4

T/F
bartonella are extracellular bacteria and are detected on erythrocyes

FAlse - intracellular bacteria – detected in erythrocytes.

5

most reliable dx test for bartonella

blood culture

6

public health concern with bartonella

cat scratch fever

7

gram negative, hemotropic mycoplasma are wall-less bacterial organisms that attach and grow on the surface of red blood cells

mycoplasma spp

8

Mycoplasma haemofelis causes this main clinical sign

anemia

9

how is mycoplasma transmitted

Blood sucking arthropods and fleas
Horizontal transmission through fighting and saliva
Transmission from queen to kitten (In utero, at birth or through nursing)

10

what are the two ways mycoplasma causes hemolytic anemia

1. Immune-mediated destruction of erythrocytes
2. intra/extravascular hemolysis

11

drug given to decrease erythrophagocytosis in severely anemic animals

prednisone

12

where does feline panleukopenia virus like to replicate

rapidly dividing cells
Lymphoid tissue, bone marrow and intestinal mucosa

13

diagnosing feline panleukopenia virus

clinical signs and leukopenia
4x titre rise
fecal antigen test
pcr

14

FIP results from

immune mediated vasculitis from coronavirus

15

T/f
feline coronavirus is a single stranded rna virus

TRUE

16

most common serotype of feline coronavirus

type 1 - unique to cats

17

why is FIP more common these days

cats are living indoors, living in shleters, larger numbers, pure breeds unbalanced diets ect

18

feline coronavirus is shed in feces __ days post infection

2 days PI

19

how long does it take the majority of cats to clear feline coronavirus

2-3 months

20

transmission of feline coronavirus

cat to cat feces - multi-cat houses

21

cell mediated response in a FeCoV infection

prevents infection

22

absent CMI and strong humoral immune response in a cat with FeCoV

effusive FIP develops

23

Intermediated CMI response in FeCoV cat

non-effusive/dry FIP -- lesions in eye and CNS as protected from immune system

24

T/F
cats get peritonitis

false

25

efffusive FIP signs

Abdominal distension/ ascites
• Bright or dull
• Anorexic or eating normally
• Mild pyrexia, weight loss, dyspnea, tachypnea
• Mucosal pallor/ icterus
• Muffled heart sounds/ pericardial effusions
• Abdominal masses palpable

26

non-effusive FIP signs

• Chronic manifestation – vague clinical signs
• Mild pyrexia, weight loss, dullness, depressed appetite
• Icterus
• Intraocular lesions
• Iritis
• Aqueous flare/ cloudiness of anterior chamber
• Keratic precipitates
• Retinal haemorrhage/ detatchment
• Pulmonary signs – dyspnea/ tachypnea
• CNS – non-suppurative granulomatous meningitis

27

gold standard test for feline coronavirus

histopath for vasculitis

28

what is usually the effusion in effusive FIP

modified transudate
albumin: globulin ratio is usually < 0.45

clear and viscous due to high protein

29

T/F
low AGP levels aid in the diagnosis of FeCoV

FALSE -- High AGP levels do

30

T/F
RT-PCR if positive, is highly suggestive of FeCoV infection and is very sensitive on effusions

TRUE

31

T/F
all cats can and should receive the vaccine for FeCoV

FALSE -- if a cat is already incubating the disease DO NOT vaccinate it

antibody testing prior to vax is essential

32

Retrovirus, single stranded RNA protected by an envelop that is worldwide in cats

FeLV

33

T/F
FeLV virus needs DNA for replication – so incorporates into the hosts’ own DNA

TRUE

34

what gag protein is used for antigen testing of FeLV

p27

35

how is FeLV transmitted

• Spread through close contact virus shedding cats and susceptible cats
• Spread through saliva (predominantly) and also blood
• Horizontal spread – predominantly

• Vertical spread from FeLV viremic cats
• Kittens infected transplacentally or through nursing

36

abortive infection stage of FeLV

These cats never get the virus, they have high levels of neutralizing antibodies in circulation

37

these cats have an effective immune response and while they initially test positive for p27, in a 3-6 weeks they will have cleared the virus

regressive infection FeLV

the pcr will still pick up the virus since it has been incorporated into their genome

38

when the FeLV is not contained and extensive replication occurs because the immune system is not strong enough to clear the virus -- what stage of infection is this

progressive -- the cats remain persistently viremic

39

T/F
cats with progressive FeLV usually live longer than 3 years

false - die

40

what is the focal/atypical type of FeLV infection

rarely natural
isolated to specific tissues

41

clinical signs associated with FeLV

• Hematopoietic malignancy
• Myelosuppression
• Infectious diseases
• Various co-infections (FIP, FIV), upper respiratory infection, hemotropic mycoplasmosis and stomatitis most common
• Fading kitten syndrome
• Neuropathy

42

Diagnosis FeLV

test for p27 ANTIGEN on elisa

can do a nucleic acid detection if you suspect regressive form in cats with lymphoma or chronically inflamed gingival lesions

43

how does Feline IFN-ω work for FeLV therapy

can lessen clinical signs and help cat survive longer

44

how is FIV transmitted

it is in saliva and blood --bites and fighting cats

45

T/F
FIV is in high concentrations in milk and so the kittens get it from their mothers while nursinf

FALSE -- yes it is in high concentrations -- but kittens rarely get it from nursing mom because the stomach contents break down the virus and it will never go systemically

46

where does FIV originally replicate

tissues rich in lymphocytes -- thymus, spleen, lymph nodes
FIV also spread to lymphocytes and macrophages in bone marrow, lung, intestinal tract, brain and kidney

47

how long are viral antibodies detectable post FIV infection

2 to 4 weeks

48

T/F
FIV affects both CD+4 and CD8+ cells

true

49

clinical signs of the acute phase FIV

• Fever, malaise
• Lymphadenopathy
• Enteritis, respiratory tract disease, stomatitis, dermatitis

50

T/F
clinical pathology is the best diagnostic tool for FIV

false - often non-specific findings

51

Most cats produce antibodies to FIV in ____ days and the test for antibodies is very sensitive

60 days

52

If a 4 month old kitten tests positive for FIV you tell the owner it has FIV?!?!

no... it can test positive from having the mom's antibodies for 6 months, tell the owner to come back and get retested after 6 months old to be sure!

53

what test can differentiate FIV vaccinated vs FIV cats

ELISA

54

antiviral chemotherapy drug

AZT - prolongs life expectancy

55

what stage of toxoplasma is excreted in feces

oocysts

56

intracellular coccidian parasite

toxoplasma gondii

57

T/F
toxoplasma is more prevalent in younger animals

false - older animals

58

how is toxo transmitted

congenital
ingestion of infected tissues
oocysts in contaminated food/water
raw meat diets

59

how many days is the Enteroepithelial life cycle of toxoplasma

3 - 10 days

60

who is the host of the Enteroepithelial life cycle

the definitive host -- gets from ingestion of intermediate host with bradyzoites/cytsts

cats are the definitive host

61

Extra-intestinal life cycle of toxoplasma

after ingestion of tissue cyst
sporozoites released -- tachyzoites reproduce intracellularly and then encyst and bradyzoites in tissues, muscles, CNS

62

Naïve cats that ingest toxo bradyzoites can develop self-limiting _____ bowel diarrhea

small

63

which kittens typically have systemic spread of toxoplasma

ones who got toxo transplacentally or lactationally
-fading kitten syndrom
-pneumonia, heptatitis, meningitis
-ascites
-anterior uveitis

64

signs in older cats with more chronic toxo

Hyperesthesia on muscle palpation, stiff gait, shifting-leg lameness
Myocarditis

65

what is seen on thoracic radiographs of toxoplasmosis

diffuse interstitial to alveolar pattern with a mottled lobar distribution

66

T/F
20% of cats shed oocyts for toxoplasmosis

FALSE - <1%

67

what drugs may lower the release of toxo oocys in feces

monensin
toltrazuril

68

Spread from cat to cat through shared cat litter boxes

Tritrichomonas fetus

69

Waxing and waning large bowel diarrhea that occasionally contains fresh blood

Tritrichomonas fetus

70

Tritrichomonas foetus treatment

Ronidazole

71

vector borne hemoprotozoan parasite
• Predominantly in south-eastern and mid-atlantic regions, it is
spreading across the USA

cyautizoon felis

72

Cytauxzoon felis vector

Amblyomma americanum and Rhipicephalus
sanguineus

73

T/F
only immunocomprimised cats with show sickness from Cytauxzoon felis

FLASE

74

pathogenesis of Cytauxzoon felis

Erythrocytes take up merozoites by endocytosis – producing classical piroplasms leading to hemolysis

75

Cytauxzoonosis clinical signs occur how many weeks after transmission

1-3 weeks

76

Cytauxzoonosis clinical signs in cats

Increase vocalisation, weakness, icterus, dark yellow urine, resp. distress, obtunded mentation or even seizures

pyrexia: 103-107fever

can develop DIC

77

you do a peripheral blood smear and see Piroplasma that are signet ring shaped
and schizonts in mononuclear cells

Cytauxzoonosis - parasitemia

can do PCR to confirm

78

Sporothrix schenkii treatment

itraconozole and saturated KI solution