Flashcards in Inflammation #6: SLE and Gout Deck (30):
What does SLE affect? (5)
What type of immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity is SLE?
What is discoid lupus?
skin rash ONLY
(Myeloid)Neutrophils can DIRECTLY activate B cells by releasing?
BLyS (B-lymphocyte stimulator)
Myeloid cells are precursors to _______
-used to treat SLE
Hydroxychloroquine is a _____ base.
Since Hydroxychloroquine is a weak base, what does it allow to happen?
it easily penetrate the plasma membrane of macrophages and dendritic cells--> this accumulates in the lysosomes--> increase in the pH from 4-6
The higher pH in the lysosome from the increase of hydroxychloroquine causes what to happen? (3)
INHIBITS the interaction between:
-Class II MHC molecules
-Subsequent antigen presentation at the cell surface
What is gout?
heterogeneous disease resulting from deposition into tissues of MONO-sodium rate crystals
What is the term used to describe elevated levels of uric acid in the blood?
The treatment of gout is directed at TWO major phases of the disease what are those?
- Acute Attacks of gout
- Prophylactic treatment, preventing attacks
What are the major clinical manifestations of GOUT? (4)
-recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis
-accumulation of uric acid (TOPHI)
-formation of uric acid stones
renal impairment in patients with gout is known as?
formation of uric acid STONES
What is the primary JOINT attacked in GOUT?
What is Podagra?
a painful condition of the big toe caused by gout
There is a correlation between development of GOUT and plasma levels _______
greater than 7 mg/dL
The real reason for deposition in joints for patients with gout is UNKNOWN, but some of the hypothetical reasons include? (2)
-less soluble at low temp
The deposition of monosodium rate crystals can lead to ____ and _____
fever and leukocytosis
The affected joints in GOUT presents with? (3)
-erythema AND warmth
Where is uric acid SYNTHESIZED?
in the liver
T/F Humans lack URICAS that degrade uric acid to allantoin
The URATE load in GOUT is derived from? (2)
-catabolism of dietary source (purines)
-breakdown of endogenous purine nucleotides
What are the 3 parts of the nucleotide?
-purine or pyrimidine
URATE elimination in humans is mainly via
the kidneys (2/3) and the GI tract (1/3)
What can lead to immune dysregulation in SLE? (3)
BLyS is present in _____ B cells
Belimumab recognizes and binds to _____, inhibits stimulation of B cells... which eventually leads to
BLyS; B cells can undergo normal process of apoptosis