Flashcards in Information Technology Deck (70)
What is a CPU?
Computer Processing Unit
It processes commands within a computer.
What is Job Control Language?
It schedules and allocates system resources.
What are examples of input devices?
Magnetic Ink Reader
Magnetic Tape Reader
Point of Sale Scanner
What are examples of Output Devices?
What are the characteristics of Magnetic Tape storage?
Sequential Access - Sorts data in order
Slower data retrieval
Header Label prevents Operator error by loading wrong tape
External Labels prevent accidental destruction by operator
What are the characteristics of Magnetic Disks?
Random Access - Finds data in random spots
Faster data retrieval
Uses Boundary Protection for data
What is a Gateway?
Connects one network to another
Note: the Internet is connected by Gateways
What are Parity Checks?
A control that detects internal data errors.
A bit is added to each character- it checks to see if a bit was lost.
What is an Echo Check?
Transmitted data is returned to the sender for verification (it echoes back to the sender)
What is a Change Control?
It authorizes program changes and approves program test results.
What is security software?
Software that controls access to IT systems.
Note: Don't confuse this with anti-virus software
What is the purpose of a Digital Signature?
It confirms a message has not been altered.
List the types of computers from smallest to largest
Microcomputer - PC- Laptop (cost-effective)
Minicomputer - Like a Mainframe- but smaller
Mainframe - Large computer with terminals attached
Supercomputer - Very powerful and very big
What are the units of computer data from smallest to largest?
Bit - 1 (on) and 0 (off)
Byte - 8 bits to a byte/character
Field - group of related characters/bytes (i.e. Name- Zip Code- Serial #)
Record - Group of related fields (i.e. Member name- address- phone number)
File - Group of related records (i.e. Membership directory)
What is the duty of a design engineer?
Determine language used for a specific computer- on a computer-to-computer basis
What are object programs?
Programs written in base computer language- not similar to English.
How can source programs be recognized?
They are written in a language close to English.
What is the purpose of a Compiler?
Takes Source language (English) and converts to Object (Computer) Language
How does Online Analytical Processing work?
It uses a Data Warehouse to support management decision making.
What is Data Mining?
Using artificial intelligence and pattern recognition to analyze data stores within a Data Warehouse.
What is the purpose of online transaction processing?
To process a company's routine transactions.
What are the characteristics of batch processing?
Data held- updates multiple files all at once
Leaves a better audit trail
Uses Grandfather-Father-Son backup (3 levels of backup kept in 3 locations)
What does an output control check for?
Checks to see if output data is valid- distributed and used in an authorized manner.
What does a processing control check?
Checks if data processing produced proper output
What is a hash total?
An input control number- a meaningless sum of values included in the input.
Example would be summing a list of SSNs to make sure the data is the same once entered as it was prior to input into the system.
What is a validity check?
Checks to see if data in existing tables or files belongs in the set
For example- is there a # in an alpha-only field or a letter in a numeric-only field
What is a limit check?
Checks to see if numbers surpass a certain limit- i.e. in an age field is the number greater than 110.
What is a check digit?
An input control that adds an identification number to a set of
digits - usually at the end
What is a field check?
An input check that prevents invalid characters- i.e. checks for alphabetic letters in a SSN field