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Flashcards in Ingredients Deck (82):
1

arborio rice

short, plump-grain rice with high starch content; commonly used to make risotto

able to retain its shape and al dente bite throughout the cooking process much better than other varieties of rice such as long-grain basmati

2

Arctic char

 

fish that lives in both fresh and salt water; closely related to salmon and trout

  • full of Omega-3 essential fatty acids
  • has thick skin that retains moisture and oil and crisps nicely when pan seared

3

bonito flakes

dried fish flakes used in Japanese cuisine to flavor broths, marinades, and condiments

  • used to make dashi broth and miso soup
  • lends a subtle, smoked fish flavor to a dish

4

bresaola

 

beef tenderloin that has been salt cured and then air dried

as a popular Italian antipasto, it is thinly sliced and served with olive oil, lemon juice, and black peppercorns

5

capers

very small, green bud of the caper shrub native to warm climates throughout the world

  • usually pickled or salted then used in recipes to add intense flavor and texture
  • "olive oil with fresh herbs and capers" is a simple and popular condiment

6

caviar

harvested fish eggs that are lightly salted and eaten raw

  • synonymous with wealth and luxury due to its high price tag (over $2,000/lb. for the very best)
  • sturgeon eggs are most sought-after
  • variety of species (salmon, trout, whitefish) used, all with different sizes, shapes, and colors
  • typically served as an hors d'oeuvre with smoked salmon and crème fraîche on a blini

7

chanterelle

small to medium-sized mushroom with unique golden brown color and nutty flavor

  • a favorite to many for its bold flavor, texture, and aroma
  • harvested in the wild from June-October
  • very short shelf life and must be thoroughly cleaned

8

chickpea

a medium-sized legume with a distinct shape, flavor, and texture; popular in cuisines throughout the world

  • cultivated by ancient Middle Eastern civilizations dating back to 3500 B.C.
  • high in protein and carbohydrates
  • cooked in a variety of ways, served both hot and cold
  • the main ingredient in hummus

9

chorizo

spicy pork sausage

  • specialty of Spanish and Mexican cuisines
  • made with either smoked or fresh pork
  • typically grilled or roasted then added to a soup, stew, casserole, or rice dish

10

crème fraîche

thickened cream that is slightly thinner than sour cream and lacks its sour flavor

traditional ingredient in French cuisine, now widely used around the world for the thickening of sauces, soups, and drinks

11

endive

leafy vegetable with several varieties and names

  • one variety has small, yellowish shoots that form a tight head similar to romaine lettuce; known as "endive" in America and most of Europe, but as "chicory" in England
  • another has a white core with small, spiny leaves; known as "frisee" or "curly endive" in America, but as "endive" in England

12

escargots

(French word for) snails

  • historical delicacy going back to Ancient China and Rome
  • chewy texture
  • typically boiled and then sauteed or baked
  • usually served with a buttery garlic and parsley sauce

13

farro

plump grain from the wheat family that is larger but similar to barley

  • popular in Italian cuisine
  • one of the first grains cultivated in Europe
  • high in nutrients and serves as a healthy side dish

14

filet mignon

a portioned piece of meat (typically 8 oz.) from the beef tenderloin

  • boneless, lean, and very tender
  • can be broiled, grilled, or pan seared
  • considered by many to be the finest cut of meat; very popular in restaurants and at catered events

15

foie gras

the fattened liver of a goose or duck

  • a delicacy of French cuisine
  • can be roasted, seared, grilled, poached, pureed, or cured
  • typically eaten with a sweet and/or sour accompaniment due to its rich, velvety characteristics

16

garlic

seed of an onion plant with a distinctive, pungent smell and aroma that is fundamental in many dishes and cuisines

  • has been cultivated for centuries, originally in Asia
  • also eaten for medicinal purposes to raise one's immune system

17

gherkin

very small (1.5 in.) un-ripened cucumber that has been pickled

  • also referred to as a "cornichon" (little horn)
  • typically eaten as a condiment to something else, like a charcuterie board

18

hamachi

young yellowtail tuna with great texture and flavor, making it a favorite on sushi menus

19

haricots verts

"haricot" is French for any type of bean, both fresh and dried; "vert" is French for the color green

  • pronounced "ariko ver"
  • known in America as "green string beans"
  • different from "green beans," which are thicker with less snap and flavor and are typically canned or pickled

20

jicama

root vegetable with brown skin that is peeled off to get to the white, un-sweet, pear-like textured flesh inside

  • can be eaten raw or cooked in a variety of ways similar to a potato
  • staple in Mexican, Caribbean, and South American cuisines
  • popular in healthy salads and soups

21

Kobe beef

a superior beef only produced in Kobe, Japan

  • meat is more marbled (fattier) and flavorsome than any other beef
  • must adhere to strict production standards
  • rumor has it that the cattle are fed beer, massaged, and then suspended in a device similar to a hammock

22

lardons

uniformly cut, small strips of bacon that have been crisply rendered

  • around 1/8 in. by 1 in.
  • great in salads and risottos

23

miso

a salty, fermented bean paste made from either rice, barley, or soybeans

  • a staple in Japanese cuisine used to flavor soups, sauces, and condiments
  • most commonly seen as "miso soup"

24

monkfish

bottom-dwelling saltwater fish also referred to as anglerfish

  • buries itself in the sand and uses its antenna to attract prey (smaller fish)
  • the tail of the monkfish has a similar texture to that of the lobster and can be prepared in similar fashion

25

nori

seaweed that has been dried and pressed into a very thin square or rectangular sheet

  • most commonly used to wrap sushi rolls
  • very dark green in color, almost black

26

pine nuts

the small edible seeds of a coniferous tree found in the Mediterranean

  • usually roasted in the oven or sauteed in a pan to develop more complex flavors and aromas
  • found in both savory and sweet recipes such as basil pesto and spice cake
  • very high in protein

27

prosciutto

salted Italian ham

  • in America it is more specifically thought of as un-cooked, dry-cured, pressed leg of pig
  • very popular in restaurants around the world for its saltiness
  • commonly sliced thin and served with cheese and something sweet, e.g., mozzarella or figs

28

quail

a type of poultry that is smaller than a chicken and has flavorful white and dark meat similar to that of a pheasant

29

quinoa

small, seed-like grain that is high in nutrients and protein

  • staple in ancient South American cuisines
  • can be boiled or ground into a meal and used for baking
  • popular today with vegans and vegetarians
  • commonly used in cold salads with dried fruits and herbs, or as a hot side dish to venison or lamb

30

roe

fish eggs

  • a staple in many cuisines around the world
  • eaten raw, salted/cured, smoked, or air dried
  • popular species include sturgeon, whitefish, salmon, trout, and shad

31

salami

Italian word used to generally describe various types of cured, air-dried sausage, such as:

  • Genoa
  • Soppressata
  • Coppa
  • Bresaola

32

scallion

a mild relative of the onion family that is long, tube-shaped, and green

often used as a garnish, giving dishes a fresh, crisp flavor

33

semolina

coarsely ground grains such as wheat, rice, corn, and buckwheat

  • commonly known as the yellow "cornmeal" used to make polenta
  • if finely ground, can be used to make pasta

34

squab

very small, domesticated young pigeon with tender dark meat

can be prepared in similar fashions to chicken

35

sweetbreads

glands of an animal such as lamb, veal, or piglet

  • come from the throat, heart, or stomach (pancreas)
  • should be soaked in milk, salt, or sometimes Cognac to remove impurities and to tenderize
  • can be prepared by poaching, grilling, sauteing, roasting, or deep-frying

36

tenderloin

the two muscles on either side of the backbone of beef, pork, or lamb

  • the cut that a portioned filet mignon comes from
  • very tender and lean
  • can be grilled, seared, or roasted whole, then carved to order
  • popular on buffet menus

37

truffles

edible fungi that grow underground, next to the roots of certain trees with a certain soil composition

  • delicacy dating back to Ancient Egypt due to exclusivity, incomparable flavor, and unique aroma 
  • can only be found in the wild; have never been domesticated

38

vinegar

an acidic liquid resulting from the fermentation of a variety of ingredients like wine, rice, barley, and apple cider

  • ancient ingredient that that was vital to food preservation
  • fundamental in Asian cuisines
  • a popular condiment used to "cut through" or "balance" the flavors of a dish

39

wheatberry

the entire kernal of the wheat grain

  • high in nutritional value
  • can be cooked like any other grain -- served hot as a side dish or cold in a salad
  • pairs well with dried fruit and herbs

40

yogurt

a thick, fermented dairy product made from curdled milk

  • often used as a base for other flavorings or as a thickening agent for stews or curries
  • one of the first methods of preserving dairy products, likely discovered by accident
  • active bacteria cultures allow it to reproduce itself in fresh milk, similar to yeast in flour

41

yuzu

a very sour Japanese citrus fruit

  • more sour than lemons and limes
  • rind is used to flavor dishes, sauces, and drinks
  • the expensive ($30 per quart), pure juice is available at Japanese supermarkets

42

short, plump-grain rice with high starch content; commonly used to make risotto

able to retain its shape and al dente bite throughout the cooking process much better than other varieties of rice such as long-grain basmati

arborio rice

43

fish that lives in both fresh and salt water; closely related to salmon and trout

  • full of Omega-3 essential fatty acids
  • has thick skin that retains moisture and oil and crisps nicely when pan seared

Arctic char

 

44

dried fish flakes used in Japanese cuisine to flavor broths, marinades, and condiments

  • used to make dashi broth and miso soup
  • lends a subtle, smoked fish flavor to a dish

bonito flakes

45

beef tenderloin that has been salt cured and then air dried

as a popular Italian antipasto, it is thinly sliced and served with olive oil, lemon juice, and black peppercorns

bresaola

 

46

very small, green bud of the caper shrub native to warm climates throughout the world

  • usually pickled or salted then used in recipes to add intense flavor and texture
  • "olive oil with fresh herbs and capers" is a simple and popular condiment

capers

47

harvested fish eggs that are lightly salted and eaten raw

  • synonymous with wealth and luxury due to its high price tag (over $2,000/lb. for the very best)
  • sturgeon eggs are most sought-after
  • variety of species (salmon, trout, whitefish) used, all with different sizes, shapes, and colors
  • typically served as an hors d'oeuvre with smoked salmon and crème fraîche on a blini

caviar

48

small to medium-sized mushroom with unique golden brown color and nutty flavor

  • a favorite to many for its bold flavor, texture, and aroma
  • harvested in the wild from June-October
  • very short shelf life and must be thoroughly cleaned

chanterelle

49

a medium-sized legume with a distinct shape, flavor, and texture; popular in cuisines throughout the world

  • cultivated by ancient Middle Eastern civilizations dating back to 3500 B.C.
  • high in protein and carbohydrates
  • cooked in a variety of ways, served both hot and cold
  • the main ingredient in hummus

chickpea

50

spicy pork sausage

  • specialty of Spanish and Mexican cuisines
  • made with either smoked or fresh pork
  • typically grilled or roasted then added to a soup, stew, casserole, or rice dish

chorizo

51

thickened cream that is slightly thinner than sour cream and lacks its sour flavor

traditional ingredient in French cuisine, now widely used around the world for the thickening of sauces, soups, and drinks

crème fraîche

52

leafy vegetable with several varieties and names

  • one variety has small, yellowish shoots that form a tight head similar to romaine lettuce; known as "endive" in America and most of Europe, but as "chicory" in England
  • another has a white core with small, spiny leaves; known as "frisee" or "curly endive" in America, but as "endive" in England

endive

53

(French word for) snails

  • historical delicacy going back to Ancient China and Rome
  • chewy texture
  • typically boiled and then sauteed or baked
  • usually served with a buttery garlic and parsley sauce

escargots

54

plump grain from the wheat family that is larger but similar to barley

  • popular in Italian cuisine
  • one of the first grains cultivated in Europe
  • high in nutrients and serves as a healthy side dish

farro

55

a portioned piece of meat (typically 8 oz.) from the beef tenderloin

  • boneless, lean, and very tender
  • can be broiled, grilled, or pan seared
  • considered by many to be the finest cut of meat; very popular in restaurants and at catered events

filet mignon

56

the fattened liver of a goose or duck

  • a delicacy of French cuisine
  • can be roasted, seared, grilled, poached, pureed, or cured
  • typically eaten with a sweet and/or sour accompaniment due to its rich, velvety characteristics

foie gras

57

seed of an onion plant with a distinctive, pungent smell and aroma that is fundamental in many dishes and cuisines

  • has been cultivated for centuries, originally in Asia
  • also eaten for medicinal purposes to raise one's immune system

garlic

58

very small (1.5 in.) un-ripened cucumber that has been pickled

  • also referred to as a "cornichon" (little horn)
  • typically eaten as a condiment to something else, like a charcuterie board

gherkin

59

young yellowtail tuna with great texture and flavor, making it a favorite on sushi menus

hamachi

60

"haricot" is French for any type of bean, both fresh and dried; "vert" is French for the color green

  • pronounced "ariko ver"
  • known in America as "green string beans"
  • different from "green beans," which are thicker with less snap and flavor and are typically canned or pickled

haricots verts

61

root vegetable with brown skin that is peeled off to get to the white, un-sweet, pear-like textured flesh inside

  • can be eaten raw or cooked in a variety of ways similar to a potato
  • staple in Mexican, Caribbean, and South American cuisines
  • popular in healthy salads and soups

jicama

62

a superior beef only produced in Kobe, Japan

  • meat is more marbled (fattier) and flavorsome than any other beef
  • must adhere to strict production standards
  • rumor has it that the cattle are fed beer, massaged, and then suspended in a device similar to a hammock

Kobe beef

63

uniformly cut, small strips of bacon that have been crisply rendered

  • around 1/8 in. by 1 in.
  • great in salads and risottos

lardons

64

a salty, fermented bean paste made from either rice, barley, or soybeans

  • a staple in Japanese cuisine used to flavor soups, sauces, and condiments
  • most commonly seen as "miso soup"

miso

65

bottom-dwelling saltwater fish also referred to as anglerfish

  • buries itself in the sand and uses its antenna to attract prey (smaller fish)
  • the tail of the monkfish has a similar texture to that of the lobster and can be prepared in similar fashion

monkfish

66

seaweed that has been dried and pressed into a very thin square or rectangular sheet

  • most commonly used to wrap sushi rolls
  • very dark green in color, almost black

nori

67

the small edible seeds of a coniferous tree found in the Mediterranean

  • usually roasted in the oven or sauteed in a pan to develop more complex flavors and aromas
  • found in both savory and sweet recipes such as basil pesto and spice cake
  • very high in protein

pine nuts

68

salted Italian ham

  • in America it is more specifically thought of as un-cooked, dry-cured, pressed leg of pig
  • very popular in restaurants around the world for its saltiness
  • commonly sliced thin and served with cheese and something sweet, e.g., mozzarella or figs

prosciutto

69

a type of poultry that is smaller than a chicken and has flavorful white and dark meat similar to that of a pheasant

quail

70

small, seed-like grain that is high in nutrients and protein

  • staple in ancient South American cuisines
  • can be boiled or ground into a meal and used for baking
  • popular today with vegans and vegetarians
  • commonly used in cold salads with dried fruits and herbs, or as a hot side dish to venison or lamb

quinoa

71

fish eggs

  • a staple in many cuisines around the world
  • eaten raw, salted/cured, smoked, or air dried
  • popular species include sturgeon, whitefish, salmon, trout, and shad

roe

72

Italian word used to generally describe various types of cured, air-dried sausage, such as:

  • Genoa
  • Soppressata
  • Coppa
  • Bresaola

salami

73

a mild relative of the onion family that is long, tube-shaped, and green

often used as a garnish, giving dishes a fresh, crisp flavor

scallion

74

coarsely ground grains such as wheat, rice, corn, and buckwheat

  • commonly known as the yellow "cornmeal" used to make polenta
  • if finely ground, can be used to make pasta

semolina

75

very small, domesticated young pigeon with tender dark meat

can be prepared in similar fashions to chicken

squab

76

glands of an animal such as lamb, veal, or piglet

  • come from the throat, heart, or stomach (pancreas)
  • should be soaked in milk, salt, or sometimes Cognac to remove impurities and to tenderize
  • can be prepared by poaching, grilling, sauteing, roasting, or deep-frying

sweetbreads

77

the two muscles on either side of the backbone of beef, pork, or lamb

  • the cut that a portioned filet mignon comes from
  • very tender and lean
  • can be grilled, seared, or roasted whole, then carved to order
  • popular on buffet menus

tenderloin

78

edible fungi that grow underground, next to the roots of certain trees with a certain soil composition

  • delicacy dating back to Ancient Egypt due to exclusivity, incomparable flavor, and unique aroma 
  • can only be found in the wild; have never been domesticated

truffles

79

an acidic liquid resulting from the fermentation of a variety of ingredients like wine, rice, barley, and apple cider

  • ancient ingredient that that was vital to food preservation
  • fundamental in Asian cuisines
  • a popular condiment used to "cut through" or "balance" the flavors of a dish

vinegar

80

the entire kernal of the wheat grain

  • high in nutritional value
  • can be cooked like any other grain -- served hot as a side dish or cold in a salad
  • pairs well with dried fruit and herbs

wheatberry

81

a thick, fermented dairy product made from curdled milk

  • often used as a base for other flavorings or as a thickening agent for stews or curries
  • one of the first methods of preserving dairy products, likely discovered by accident
  • active bacteria cultures allow it to reproduce itself in fresh milk, similar to yeast in flour

yogurt

82

a very sour Japanese citrus fruit

  • more sour than lemons and limes
  • rind is used to flavor dishes, sauces, and drinks
  • the expensive ($30 per quart), pure juice is available at Japanese supermarkets

yuzu