Innate and Adaptive immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Innate and Adaptive immunity Deck (32):
0

What is a cytokine?

-Proteins which alter the behaviour of other cells

1

When is a chemokine?

-Protein that attracts other cells

2

How does endothelium become permeable upon infection/damage?

-Mast cells release histamine increasing vascular permeability as well as promotion by inflammatory mediators

3

What is opsonisation?

-Increasing bacteria's susceptibility to phagocytosis by coating it in antibodies which are recognised by phagocytic cells

4

What are the consequences of inflammation?

-Calor (heat)
-Tumor (swelling)
-Rubor (redness)
-Dolor (pain)
-Functio laesa (loss of function)

5

What humoral component can block the action of viruses?

-Interferon

6

Which enzyme is specific in causing bacterial cell lysis?

-Lysozyme

7

What are the main general features of the innate immune system?

-Inbuilt immunity which is present at birth
-Not specific
-Not enhanced by secondary exposure
-Has no memory
-Uses cellular and humoral components
-Poorly effective without adaptive immunity

8

What are the main general features of the adaptive immune system?

-Acquired through exposure
-Pathogen specific through antibodies
-Enhanced by second exposure
-Uses cellular and humoral components
-Poorly effective without innate immunity

9

What are the specific cells in adaptive immunity

-B lyphocytes
-T lymphocytes

10

What are the main cells of innate immunity?

-Macrophage
-Neutrophils (PMN)
-Mast cells/basophil
-Natural killer cells
-Eosinophil

11

What is complement?

A cascade of proteins that results in bacterial cell lysis

12

Is complement part of the innate or adaptive immunity?

-Both

13

What is the relationship between T cells and B cells?

-Thelper cells present antigens to B cells which become active and secrete specific antibody

14

Where are macrophages derived from?

-Monocytes

15

What are the functions of macrophages?

-Phagocytosis (can produce more lysosomes as needed)
-Antigen presenting cells
-Release cytokines

16

What are the functions of the neutrophil?

-First cell to arrive in damage
-Phagocytosis
-Anti-bacterial (cannot synthesis more lysosomes once activated)

17

What are the functions of eosinophils?

-Anti-parasitic
-Allergy response

18

What are the functions of mast cells and basophils?

-Involved in allergy response and hypersensitivity
-Protection of mucosal surfaces

19

What is the function of natural killer cells?

-Causes apoptosis by pumping proteases through pores of the membranes in infected cells

20

What is the function of transferring and lactoferrin?

-Deprive the mico-organism of iron

21

What are the functions of interferon?

-Inhibits viral replication
-Activates other cells

22

What is the function of lysozyme and where can it be found?

-Breaks down peptidoglycan
-Serum and tears

23

What is the function of fibronectin?

-Coats bacteria to promote phagocytosis

24

What are the functions of TNFalpha?

-Suppress viral replication
-Activate other cells

25

How does complement increase opsonisation?

-Coats bacteria via components binding to micro-organism

26

Where are complement proteins found?

-Ubiquitous in blood and lymph

27

How does complement cause bacterial cell lysis?

-The proteolytic cascade leads to the assembly of the membrane attack complex which punches a pore in the membrane of the bacterium causing loss of cell contents and lysis

28

What can inherited complement deficiency lead to?

-Immune complex disease
-Recurrent bacterial infection
-Recurrent neisserial infection

29

What are the two subsets of T cells?

-CD4+ expressing Thelper cells
-CD8+ expressing Tcytoxic cells

30

What are the two subsets of B cells?

-Plasma B cells
-Memory B cells

31

What is clonal selection and expansion?

-Appropriate Specific B cell selected
-Proliferation of that B cell