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Flashcards in Internal surfaces Deck (43):
0

What are the layers of a mucous membrane?

-Epithelium lining the lumen
-Lamina propria
-Muscularis mucosa

1

What is the lamina propria?

-Thin layer of connective tissue

2

What is muscularis mucosa?

-Smooth muscle in mucous membranes

3

What structures do mucous membranes line?

-Alimentary tract
-Respiratory tract
-Urinary tract
-I.e. internal tubes which open to the exterior

4

What are serous membranes?

-Two part membranes which line closed body cavities which envelope viscera
-I.e. peritoneum, pericardium, pleural sacs

5

What is the function of serous membranes?

-Secrete lubricating fluid promoting friction-free movement of the viscera they surround

6

What type of epithelium are serous membranes?

-Simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium)

7

-How to serosae come to surround viscera?

-The viscera invaginate into the serosae becomming surrounded.
-The membrane closest to the organ is the visceral membrane
-The opposing membrane is the periatal membrane

8

What makes up the alimentary canal?

-Oesophagus
-Stomach
-Duodenum, jejenum, ileum
-Colon
-Rectum

9

What are the layers of the alimentary tract wall?

-Mucosa
-Submucosa
-Muscularis externa
-Serosae

10

What is the mucosa made up of?

-Epithelia
-Lamina propria
-Muscularis mucosa

11

What is the immune adaption of the mucosa of the ileum?

-Peyers patches (aggregations of lymphocytes) in the lamina propria

12

What is the adaption of the mucosa in the stomach?

-Rugae (folds of gastric mucosa)

13

What is an adaption of the jejenum?

-Pilcae circulares (folds of mucosa/submucosa into lumen) which have villi which have microvilli
-Greatly increase surface area

14

What is an adaption of the colon mucosa?

-Have microvilli
-Have crypts of lieberkuhn which secrete mucus

15

What is submucosa?

-Connective tissue which lies underneath the mucosa
-Contains glands, blood vessels and nerves

16

What is the muscularis externa?

-Smooth muscle which surrounds submucosa
-Has two layers - inner circular layer and outer longitudial layer
-surrounded by serosae

17

What is the function of the muscularis externa in the alimentary canal?

-Peristaltic waves to move lumen contents along

18

What is adventitia and when is it present?

-Thin layer of connective tissue
-Present when there is no invagination of viscera into the pericardium, pleural sac or peritoneum

19

List the conducting portion and the respiratory portions of the respiratory tract?

-Conducting portion - nasal canal, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx and trachea
-Respiratory portion - bronchi, bronchioles, lung, alveolar ducts, alveoli and diaphragm

20

What is the epithelium of the respiratory tract?

-Pseudostratified, ciliated epithelia

21

What is the epithelium of the oesophagus?

-Stratified squamous non-keratinised

22

What is the epithelium of the majority of the alimentary tract?

-Simple columnar

23

What are the cell types in the alveoli?

-Type 1 squamous (90%)
-Type 2 cuboidal which secrete surfactant

24

What are alveoli surrounded by?

-A basketwork of capillaries and elastic fibres

25

What immune cell type lines the alveoli?

-Numerous macrophages

26

List the layers of the respiratory tract walls

-Mucosa
-Submucosa
-muscularis externa
-serosae/adventitia

27

Which section of the respiratory tract has adventitia?

-Trachea

28

What type of glands are in the submucosa of the trachea?

-seromucus

29

What unicellular glands are present in the respiratory tract and upto what point?

-Goblet cells
-Upto bronchioles as the lumen gets narrow, mucus would block it.

30

What is the function of the trachealis muscle and where is it located?

-At the back of the trachea, anterior to the oesophagus
-Can open and close the trachea to an extent

31

Describe the hyaline cartilage of the trachea and state its purpose

-C shaped rings
-to keep the airways open

32

-Upto what point in the respiratory tract is cartilage found?

-Down to the bronchioles

33

-What keeps the bronchioles open?

-The surrounding alveoli

34

What happens to the hyaline cartilage of the respiratory tract with age?

-Partly transforms to bone

35

What makes up the urinary tract?

-Kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra

36

What epithelium is present in the bladder, ureter and urethra and what is its function?

-Transitional epithelium
-Distensibility and protection from toxic chemicals

37

What are the layers of the mucosa of the bladder?

-Transitional Epithelium
-lamina propria
-no muscularis mucosae

38

Why is the bladder impermeable to urine?

-Thick PM
-Intracellular tight junctions

39

What adaption does the muscularis externa of the bladder have?

-Has three layers instead of two

40

Does the bladder, ureter and urethra have adventitia or serosa?

-Adventitia

41

Why are females more prone to urinary tract infections

-Female urethra 1.5 inches
-Male urethra 8 inches

42

What epithelial cells are found in the penile urethra?

-Stratified columnar epithelia for blood flow for erection