INRS 7311 Learning Unit 4 Sampling and Data collection Theme 2 Quantitative Data Collection techniques Flashcards Preview

BACC 3RD YEAR > INRS 7311 Learning Unit 4 Sampling and Data collection Theme 2 Quantitative Data Collection techniques > Flashcards

Flashcards in INRS 7311 Learning Unit 4 Sampling and Data collection Theme 2 Quantitative Data Collection techniques Deck (12):
1

Define survey research 5 marks

*Defined as a data collection tool consisting of a series of questions to gather information about a relatively large group of people .
*Popular research tool often used to get demographic and psychographic information . Also used to to get quantitative description of trends or opinions to be able to generalise to the greater population

2

Distinguish between different types of surveys . 8 marks

*Cross-sectional = only collect data from participants once .
*Before-and-after = data is collected at to preset points in time . Most useful to measure a change in a particular event/situation .
*Longitudinal survey = used to determine log term effects of an intervention . (3 main types : trend which looks at a change in the population over time according to a phenomenon , cohort where a different sample is used but drawn from at different times and panel where the same sample is used at different times)

3

Identify the different types of questionnaires and explain the application of each one 16 marks

*Mail = send questionnaires either via mail or email . +ve's=self-administered , cheap ,allows for sensitive topics . -ve's = can't clear up misunderstandings , low response rate , long time to collect .

*Telephone = similar to mail but over the phone . +ve's: cheap,quick,high response rate , easy to clarify misunderstandings . -ve's: can't observe participants , getting access to sample , can't read NV behaviour .

*Interview = Structured face to face interview in certain setting . Recorded answers to preset Q's . +ve's : can clarify queries , high response rate, respondents don't have to be literate , able to build rapport . -ve's : takes long time , expensive , can't be used on a large sample , impossible to be anonymous .

*Group administered surveys = Questionnaire filed in by a group during a single session . +ve's : high response rate , quick , can clarify questions . -ve's : expensive .

4

Discuss the nature and characteristics of questionnaires 6 marks

*They often use close ended questions with checklists and rating scales .
Keep the following in mind .

/Always include an intro
/Include a rough time of completion
/Clear instructions and language
/Logical layout and sequence
/Not too many Q's
/Relevant Q's
/Pro tip = demographic Q's at the end
/Includes thanks for including the questionnaire .
/Pre-test if possible

5

Identify different types of questions that can be used in questionnaires 24 possible marks

/Direct = demand open response
/Indirect = More polite and less confidential
/General = Applicable to a greater situation
/Specific= Like direct but focus on one particular aspect
/Close-ended = Have a fixed number of options
/Open-ended = Allows respondents to answer in their own words and express their feelings and ideas
/Paired-comparison= Choice between two options
/Contingency = Answer the question that follows only if the answer to this Q is one specific thing (eg only answer Q2 if you answer yes to Q1)
/Ranking = Given a set of options and rate them on a given scale (eg rate your favourite foods from 1-5 with 1 being least favourite )
/Inventory = Given a list of options and must choose what personally applies to them
/Matrix = Scaled options that gauge feelings of respondent on one specific area .
/Multiple choice = Respondent chooses most applicable from list of choices .

6

Identify and discuss possible problems associated with the wording of the questions 22 marks max

/Double barrell = Two Q's in one sentence
/Questionable assumptions or presumptive Q's = Make assumptions about respondent
/Loaded language = Q phrased in a way that indicates the researchers positions
/Leading Q's = Subtle pressure on respondent to answer one way or another .
/Negative Q's = Q's that can be misinterpreted
/Incomplete Q's = Respodents must answer on incomplete info provided .
/Vague = Q is vague in its wording
/Lengthy = Confuse people and distracts respondent from the focus of the Q
/Ambigious language = Too open to interpretation and/or have multiple meanings
/Abbreviations or acronyms = Assumes respondents know what they mean or stand for
/Complex Q = Laden with industry specific jargon that's hard for a lay person to understand .

7

Explain different measurement scales that can be used 4 marks

*Can be part of questionnaires but can be used on their own
*What scale is chosen is vital for how the data is analysed later on
Ratio scale is highest level of measurement , nomial scale is the lowest .

8

Identify the different types of surveys and explain the application of each kind . 18 marks maximum ,

*Nominal scale = Use of numbers to categorise to label variables . These numbers have no statistical relevance .These categories must be : exhaustive
(all elements of the population must fall into one category) , mutually exclusive(be able to fit in ONLY one category ) , no numerical significance (category number labels musn't mean/indicate anything) .

*Ordinal scale = Ranking of objects with regards to a common variable . Each item has more or less of the variable measure against than the other items . This measurement doesn't include the difference in the variable presence of each item . )

*Interval scale = Similar to ordinal but differences are equidistant from each other . Important to remember with this scale is that 0 is a possible value .

*Ratio scale = Like an interval place but absolute zero is a possible figure(meaning that variable is absent) . eg How much money have you spent at Restaurant X ?

*Likert scale = asks respondents to indicate a level of agreement or disagreement to statements regarding a attitude or object . Usually a 1-5 scale from 1 being lowest to 5 highest .

*Semantic differential scale = Also uses a scale of five or seven but includes polar opposites on the scale . (eg rating a temperature from hot to cold)

9

Distinguish between quasi-experimental and true experimental designs 9 marks

*In quasi experimental designs the participants are not randomly assigned to groups . Instead they are assigned base on variable that could be predetermined . 3 Types =Propensity score matching (matches two groups according to a variable that could be similar , like income bracket) . Regression discontinuity (comparison of instances above or below a certain threshold ) . Difference in difference (arguably the most common . The difference in growth between two groups is measured aka the difference in difference)

True experimental The notes list 4 types , namely :Pretest/Posttest , Solomon four group design , Factorial design , Natural Experiments

10

Explain the threats to internal validity in experimental design 24 marks maximum

*History = event takes place in betwen pre and post test eg getting robbed between a crime survey .
*Maturation = Indivudals change over time eg a survey on cooldrink subliminal ads is irrelevant if people are buying drinks because they feel thirsty and not because of the ads
*Testing = Pre test affects post test .eg repeating the same maths test twice either side of a maths workshop could just mean the students remember the test better . *Instrumentation = The test doesnt actually measure what its meant to measure .
*Statistical regression = choosing participants that are extremely far from the mean . Regression to the mean is far more likely , regardless of any innovation .
*Selection bias = Members of control group and experimental group must be compatible
*Selection maturation interaction = similar to selection bias , but in this case the incompatibility happens because time passes .
*Experimental mortality = Some respondents are lose inbetween the pre and post test period .

11

Explain quantitative content analsyis 4 marks

*An analysis of the content in mass media
*Quantitative technique
*Denotative = literal , dictionary meaning
*Free from any form of interpretation

12

Explain what criteria you will use to evaluate the categories of content analysis 3 marks

*Exhaustive : All data must fit into a category .
*Mutually exclusive = Each unit must only fit in one category
*Equivalent=Each category must carry equal weight
.

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