Flashcards in INRS 7311 Quantitative and Qualitative Data Analysis : Theme 2 Qualitative Data Analysis Deck (5):
Explain the nature of qualitative analysis and interpretation 10-12 marks
*There are different types of qualtitative interpretations
/Iterative = means"repeat" or "repetition" . Qualitative research is cyclical and the process will be repeated .
/Hermeneutic : the text is interpreted in detail . This includes reading it and conversing about it .
/Textual : Research is based in text . Includes all forms of language including oral , computer , graphic and written .
/Subjective : Since the data isn't black and white , it is subjective . It is then down to the researcher to back it up well .
/Constructed and symbolic : The construction reffered to here is the contruction of reality by the participants of the study . This is done via their own personal experience . It considers how meaning is created , negotiate and modified . The symbols reffered to are the tools use by participants to convey meaning to one another with the confines of the study . Symbols are seen as a social construct meant to share meaning .
Discuss qualitative data analysis methods 10 marks
*.Discourse analysis : The way in which language is used to express ideas . A linguistic approach to text where the researcher determines how the author choose words to construct a social object or event .
*Conversation analysis : The analysis of the particulars of conversation . Includes when people feel is the right to start or stop speaking , change topic etc .Audio or video recording become vital with this method
*Multimodal conversation analysis : The use of coomunication modes eg proxemics , chronemics etc to understand what implied and overt messages mean . Multimodal refers to the researcher combining whatever modes they feel important to that particular study .
*Semiotics : Deals with whatever signals constitute a sign . Analysis of codes and the meaning they give . EG the letters c-a-t make the word "cat" and as a sign refer to the four legged pet mammal . Also includes any gestures and objects that give meaning .
*Content analysis : Can apply either inductively or deductively .
Explain the steps involved in conducting qualitative data analysis 16 marks
*1/ Prep the data = transfer the data from raw to into written . All forms of data including recordings . The more through the prep the more useful the data . What does get prepped and what doesn't will depend on the context of the research at hand .
2/Define the coding unit : Decide on what concept will be used as a unit to sift through the research . It could be a paragraph , particular phrases etc . Helps to break text down into manageable chunks .
3/Developing categories : Grouping together of coded units into categories of codes . 3 characteristics of categories: exhaustive(more than enough for all the data) , Mutually exclusive ( all the data falls into one category only ) and specific .
4/Test coding scheme : Testing proposed category definitions on a sample of the data .
5/Coding all the text : Scrutiny of the text for all important items .
6/Assessing your coding consistency
7/Drawing conclusion from coded data : Interpretation of data occurs here . This includes explaining relationships , extra info and account for all relevant factors .
8/Report findings and method : Give feedback on findings and the process used as honestly and openly as possible .
Explain different types of coding 10 marks
*Line by line = Readthrough of text line by line to find and highlight important parts
*Open/substantive : Also a line by line readthrough but with the purpose of getting a general understanding .
*Axial = Recconection of similar categories after a similar read through . This may lead to some sections/parts of the text being re-categorised .
*Selective coding = searching for a specific/essential code throughout the text that is central to the notion of the study .
*Thematic coding = Sorting of the text via the use of themes that you preset .