Flashcards in INRS7311 Learning Unit 4 : Sampling and Data Collection Theme 3 Qualitative Data Collection Techniques Deck (13):
Explain the goals of qualitative research 7 marks
*Research design coherence
*Ensure validity and trustworthiness
Distinguish different field research approaches 6 marks
*Ethnography = refers to the description of a culture a researcher is interested in exploring
*Grounded theory =Theory is grounded in the data being collected
*Case Study = A detailed description
Distinguish between different types of ethnographic research 12 marks
*Anthropological = researcher invests high volume of time in the investigated culture
*Audience Researcher wants to explore how audiences get pleasure from interaction with TV and radio
*Street ethnography = Focus is on those who , willingly or not , spend high volumes of time on the streets .
*Autoethnography = Explores cultural connection between research and the culture being explored .
*Virtual ethnography = Use of cultural techniques to understand behaviour in the cyberspace .
*Institutional ethnography = Focus is on the experience of oppressed people in the workplace .
Explain grounded theory 4 marks
*Alternative to positvism
*Used when theories on given topic are scarce .
*Is ongoing and become more grounded the more data in used .
Explain the case study approach to a research study 8 marks
*Detailed description of a phenomena that occurs in a real world context
*Aim of case study is to make appear authentic to regular people . Collected via interview and direct observation
3 types = Illustrative ( attempt to understand what happened in a particular case )
Exploratory = Rigourous description of case to make sense of it in a broader context
Explanatory = Attempts to explain nuances and circumstances of a phenomena .
Explain the range of participation in field research 6 marks
*Onlooker = researcher observes from a distance . They can't bild relationships and could potentially deceive the people being observed
*Portal participation = Researcher participates but doesn't get too invovled . This could potentially alter subjects behaviour of affect trust in the researcher .
*Full participation : Completely intergrated with community being studied . Could possibly lose perspective and/or objectivity
Explain the steps in conducting field research 4 marks
1/ Get to know the people being studied = Build a relationship with them
2/Immerse yourself =Conform to the society studied
3/Make detailed notes = Detailed recordings of your thoughts and feelings about the community being studied
4/Consolidate the data =Search for common trends in the data
Explain what a focus group entails 6 marks
* A group interview used to determine attitudes/behaviour/preferences/dislikes of the subjects .
*Consists of a group of 6-12 usually and a researcher and/or facilitator .
*Pre-tested Q's about specific event/topic/phenomenon asked in a natural way .
Explain how to conduct a focus group meeting 8 marks
*Facilitator asks general Q's
*Create rapport amongst everyone
*Divide Q's into categories
*Ensure respondents are at ease and comfortable with each other
*Keep a detailed report
*Monitor everyone's contributions
*Control dominating members and encourage shy members
*Use open ended Q's that stimulate a greater flow of conversation
*Prompt respondents for a more detailed response if felt neccessary .
Discuss the advantages of focus groups 8 marks
*Deeper understanding gained
Participants can learn from each other
*Collect evidence on feelings/opinions
*Helpful methodology when the topic is unexplored or unfamiliar to the researcher .
*Can ask the participants detailed questions
*Can clarify contradictions
*Help direct construction of interview questions
*Can supplement pre-testing a quantitative instrument .
Describe the key considerations 9 marks
1/ Involvement of the researchers
*People are people not objects
*Be sensitive to their feelings
*Always be ethical
2/ Build rapport
*Don't force your opinion on others
*Don't assume things about the members
Distinguish between different types of interviews 9 marks
1/ Informal , conversational interviews
*Interview has no specific Q's , progressing as it develops and allowing for increased openness .
*Few preset Q's but interviewer still has freedom and is flexible
3/Standardised , open ended interviews
*Fixed open ended Q's
*Allows for easy comparison of respondents views/answers