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Flashcards in Instrumentation Deck (90):
1

Diameter of head of Gates Glidden burs

1=0.5, 2=0.7, 3=0.9, 4=1.1, 5=1.3, 6=1.5

2

When does apical transportation occur most?

In curved canals enlarged beyond a no. 25 S.S. file

3

What is cyclic fatigue?

Opposite sides of the file receive tension and compression, which eventually breaks the file

4

What does the EAL measure?

Impedance (tells you when you approach or enter the PDL)

5

When do you treat a curved canal as a straight canal?

When the degree of curvature is less than 30 degrees

6

Two authors who recommend using stainless steel k files to create a glide path?

West 2005, Ruddle 2006

7

What rpm to run K3's at?

350. At this RPM, they plane.

8

Who said pre-flaring of canals increases efficacy of rootZX?

Ibarrola 1999

9

Ibarrola 1999

apex locator

Pre-flaring of canals increases efficacy of rootZX (although not by an amount that matters clinically) .04 v. .4

10

Who said: In vivo, the Root ZX can locate the apical constriction within 0.5 mm 82.5% of the time, and is equally accurate in necrotic and vital cases

Dunlap 1998

11

Dunlap 1998

In vivo, the Root ZX can locate the apical constriction within 0.5 mm 82.5% of the time, and is equally accurate in necrotic and vital cases

12

Ounsi and Naaman 1999

The Root ZX gave measurements in vitro within a range of 0.5 mm from the apex in 84.72% of the cases. The intra-operator and inter-operator variabilities were not statistically significant. Said just go to the apex, don't try to measure .5 mm back.

13

Who said: The Root ZX gave measurements in vitro within a range of 0.5 mm from the apex in 84.72% of the cases. The intra-operator and inter-operator variabilities were not statistically significant

Ounsi and Naaman 1999

14

Who says:Ex vivo, the Elements Diagnostic Unit can locate the apical constriction within 0.5 mm 94.3% of the time

Plotino 2006

15

Plotino 2006

EAL

Ex vivo, the Elements Diagnostic Unit can locate the apical constriction within 0.5 mm 94.3% of the time

16

Who said prognosis of root perfs is dependent on prevention or treatment of bacterial infection at perf site.

Fuss and Trope 1996

17

Fuss and Trope 1996. What are the three things that determine outcome of a root perf?

Time: sooner is better
Size: smaller is better
Location: better if not in the critical zone- level of crestal bone and epithelial attachment.

18

Who showed that neither the first K file or lightspeed instrument to bind at working length accurately reflected the apical constriction diameter? 75% bound one wall. 25% bound zero walls.

Wu and Wesselink 2002

19

What did Wu and Wesselink show in 2002? (first file to bind)

That the first file to bind at working length is not necessarily indicative of the apical constriction diameter. 75% of files bound only 1 wall, and 25% no walls.

20

What is the tip size of S1 and S2 protaper? taper?

.17 mm and .20 mm taper: variable

21

What RPM and torque should S1 and S2 be run at?

S1: 300 RPM 3-4 Ncm
S2: 300 RPM 1-1.5 Ncm

22

Who evaluated the giromatic handpiece in 1967 by rotating a barbed broach a quarter turn in both directions, moving 2-4 mm up and down. Decided not perfect, but can be used with caution.

Alfred L. Frank

23

What did Alfred L. Frank report on in 1967

The giromatic handpiece (a barbed broach rotating a quarter turn in both directions.)

24

Who first advocated standard sizes for files?

John Ingle in 55 and 61

25

What was John Ingle's argument in 55 and 61?

Since improper obturation was leading cause of failures, we need uniformity in instrumentation and filling materials.

26

What did Gambirini find out about NiTi rotary in 2001?

There is statistically higher resistance to cyclic fatigue for NiTi rotary instruments used at lower torque values.

27

Who showed There is statistically higher resistance to cyclic fatigue for NiTi rotary instruments used at lower torque values.

Gambirini 2001

28

Who showed that the root ZX works equally well in the presence of lidocaine, NaOCl, RC prep, liquid EDTA, 3% H202, peridex

Jenkins 2001 (Mears did the same study)

29

Jenkins 2001 rootzx

showed that the root ZX works equally well in the presence of lidocaine, NaOCl, RC prep, liquid EDTA, 3% H202, peridex

30

Who found that no technique or instrumentation will predictably produce a round prep in the apical portion? (The roundest prep possible is K file with reaming)

Jungmann and Uchin 1975

31

Jungmann and Uchin 1975

found that no technique or instrumentation will predictably produce a round prep in the apical portion? (The roundest prep possible is K file with reaming)

32

Who proved that you don't need to remeasure length after instrumentation (0.35 mm is the greatest change that occurs in curved MB canals)?

Caldwell 1975

33

What did Caldwell show in 75 about remeasuring length after instrumentation.

That you don't have to, b/c the biggest change is 0.35 mm in curved MB canals.

34

Who termed apical zip, discussed elbow, teardrop apex and hourglass shape, and argued against reaming?

Weine and Kelly

35

Schilder's big review of instrumentation in 1974 showed what?

That instrumentation is the most important phase of RCT.
Advocated natural flow.
Ok to go outside of apex with fine instruments.
Irrigate with NaOCl
Clean one canal at a time
Make enough room for Calcium hydroxide.

36

Who showed and in what year that:
That instrumentation is the most important phase of RCT.
Advocated natural flow.
Ok to go outside of apex with fine instruments.
Irrigate with NaOCl
Clean one canal at a time
Make enough room for Calcium hydroxide.

Schilder 1974

37

Who showed that there is less tissue in serially prepared canals, and more penetration of irrigation? (Stepped back to 60, used G.G.?

Coffae 1975

38

Who first advocated stepback?

Walton 76

39

Who first advocated anticurvature filing?

Abou-Rass 80

40

Who first introduced the stepdown technique?

Ace Goerig82

41

Who first introduced pressureless crowndown?

Morgan and Montgomery 84* better than goerig for quoting crown down.

42

Who advocated balanced force?

James Roane 1985

43

Who first advocated stepback with ultrasonic cleaning?

Alan Goodman 1985

44

Who first advocated passive stepback?

Torbinejad 1994

45

two studies that did not advocate early EALs?

Fouad 1990, Hembraugh 1993

46

Who showed that the most favorable histologic conditions are when instrumentation is at or short of the apical constriction? (Did NSRCT, recalled for xrays, biopsied apex)

Ricucci 1998

47

What did Ricucci 98 show about working length?

the most favorable histologic conditions are when instrumentation is at or short of the apical constriction? (Did NSRCT, recalled for xrays, biopsied apex)

48

Who did original EAL research--first discovered that the electrical resistance between the mucous membrane and the periodontium is the same?

Suzuki

49

What did Stabholz and Torbinejad 1995 show about working length?

That pre-flaring helped the dentist to "feel the apical constriction better. After preflaring, 75% were within 1 mm of the apex. For non-flared: 32%.

50

Who found that pre-flaring helped the dentist to "feel the apical constriction better. After preflaring, 75% were within 1 mm of the apex. For non-flared: 32%.

Stabholz and Torbinejad 1995

51

What did Fuss et al 1996 find about perfs?

That an EAL is helpful in determining the location of the perf.

52

Who found that an EAL is helpful in determining the location of a perf.

Fuss 1996

53

Who first realized Suzuki's discovery of electrical resistance between mucous membrane and periodontium? Measured resistance with a direct current.

Sunada 1962

54

Kuttler-working length?

Instrument 0.5 to 1 mm from radiographic apex b/c distance from major to minor diameter is 0.5 to 0.7 mm

55

Two studies to quote for prognosis for retained instruments?

Spili 2005,
Panitvisai 2010 (meta-analysis)

56

Who did a meta-analysis on retained instruments that said: the prognosis for endodontic treatment when a fractured instrument is left inside a tooth is not significantly reduced?

Panitvisai 2010

57

Panitvisai 2010 meta analysis

The prognosis for endodontic treatment when a fractured instrument is left inside a tooth is not significantly reduced. (healing has to do with presence of periapical lesion)

58

Who showed less apical extrusion with rotary than hand instruments?

Reddy 1998

59

Reddy 1998 (hand v. rotary instruments)

Rotary instruments had less apical extrusion than hand instruments.

60

Kenee 2006

Rotary and ultrasonics are both better than irrigation alone in removing calcium hydroxide

61

Who said that rotary and ultrasonics are both better than irrigation alone in removing calcium hydroxide?

Kenee 2006

62

Metzler and Montgomery 1989

At 1 mm from apex, ultrasonics and calcium hydroxide were both significantly better at cleaning the canal system of VITAL tissue than filing alone.

63

Who showed that At 1 mm from apex, ultrasonics and calcium hydroxide were both significantly better at cleaning the canal system of VITAL tissue than filing alone?

Metzler and Montgomery 1989

64

Who said that rotary instruments maintain canal curvature better than s.s. hand instruments, especially in apical portion?

Schafer, Lohmann 2002

65

What did Schafer and Lohmann 2002 show?

Rotary instruments maintain canal curvature better than S.S. hand instruments, especially in apical portion?

66

What did Sonntag 2003 show about rotaries?

Comparing quality of root canals done by dental students with rotaries v. hand instruments,
rotaries: less zips and elbows, adequate length achieved more often

67

Who showed that:
Comparing quality of root canals done by dental students with rotaries v. hand instruments,
rotaries: less zips and elbows, adequate length achieved more often

Sonntag 2003

68

Who showed that instrument fractures occur an equal percent of the time (1.3%) with rotary or with hand files?

Sonntag 2003

69

What did Sonntag 2003 show about instrument fracture?

Occurs 1.3% of time, equal in rotaries and hand files

70

Matsuo 2003

Even with large rotary instruments, not all of the affected dentin is removed

71

Who showed that even with large rotary instruments, not all of the affected dentin is removed?

Matsuo 2003

72

What did Burch and Hulen 1972 show?

The apical foramen is 0-3 mm from the radiographic apex

73

Who showed that the apical foramen is 0-3 mm from the radiographic apex?

Burch and Hulen 1972

74

Wu, Wesselink and Walton 2000- working length in vital v. PARL teeth?

vital: 2-3 mm short of the radiographic apex
PARL: 0-2 mm short of radiographic apex

75

who said you should fill:
vital: 2-3 mm short of the radiographic apex
PARL: 0-2 mm short of radiographic apex

Wu, Wesselink and Walton 2000

76

Who said teeth filled more than 2 mm short of radiographic apex have lowered prognosis?

Sgogren 1990

77

Who first investigated the use of ultrasonics to disinfect root canals?

Martin 1976

78

Who compared in-vivo debridement of mandibular molar mesial canals, and found that canal and isthmus cleanliness was higher in apical area when hand instrumentation was combined with ultrasonics

Archer 1992

79

What did Archer 1992 find about ultrasonics?

compared in-vivo debridement of mandibular molar mesial canals, and found that canal and isthmus cleanliness was higher in apical area when hand instrumentation was combined with ultrasonics

80

Who studied 8500 root-filled teeth and found (2.1%) with a broken instrument in the final
radiograph. However, a higher failure rate was not found when these cases were compared at follow-up with matched cases without a fracture?

Crump and Natkin 1970

81

What is the incidence of broken instruments according to Crump and Natkin 1970?

2.1% (hand files)

82

Who did great review on Eradication of endodontic infection by instrumentation and
irrigation solutions?

Haapasalo 2005

83

Who introduced niti to endo?

Walia 1988

84

What is austenite and martensite

Austenite: initial body centered cubic lattice
Martensite: in a close canal, the metal is rearranged into a hexagonal array. The transition back and forth allows files to bend easily around severe curves

85

Who came up with R-phase? Two examples?

Sybron. Twisted and K3XF

86

Who came up with Mwire?

Developed by dentsply (profile vortex, GT series X, proper next)

87

What is controlled memory NiTi?

Can be precurved, then returns to original shape after sterilization

88

What is the schneider technique?

Most used for determining the curve of a canal

89

Who invented lightspped?

Steve Senia

90

Who invented Protaper

Ruddle