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Flashcards in Integumentary System - Words Deck (62):
1

integumentary system

an extremely large, flat, flexible body system that covers the entire surface of the body

2

What does the integumentary system include?

- skin (epidermis and dermis)
- sebaceous glands
- sweat glands
- hair
- nails

3

What is the purpose of the integumentary system?

- protecting the body
- sense of touch

4

integument

skin, hair, and nails

5

epithelium
epithelial tissue

basic type of tissue that covers the external surface of the body, but also includes the mucous membranes that line the walls of internal cavities that connect to the outside of the body

6

What are the two layers of the skin?

epidermis & dermis

7

What is the dermis categorized as?

connective tissue

8

epidermis

thin, outermost layer of the skin

9

keratin

a hard, fibrous protein

10

What does the most superficial part of the epidermis contain?

dead cells that have no nuclei and are filled with keratin

11

exfoliation

the process of constantly shedding or sloughing off the outer protective layer of dead cells

12

basal layer

layer of the epidermis composed of living cells that are constantly dividing and being forced to the surface

13

Are there blood vessels in the epidermis?

no

14

melanocytes

pigment cells that produce melanin

15

melanin

a dark brown or black pigment

16

dermis

thicker layer beneath the epidermis

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collagen fibers

firm, white protein connective tissue fibers throughout the dermis

18

elastin fibers

elastic, yellow protein fibers in the dermis

19

What does the dermis contain?

- collagen and elastin fibers
- arteries
- veins
- neurons
- hair follicles
- sebaceous glands
- sweat glands

20

dermatome

a specific area on the skin that sends sensory information to the spinal cord

21

What is a "C" dermatome?

dermatome with a spinal nerve entering the spinal cord at the level of the neck

22

What is a "T" dermatome?

dermatome with a spinal nerve entering the spinal cord at the level of the thorax

23

What is an "L" dermatome?

dermatome with a spinal nerve entering the spinal cord at the level of the lower back

24

What is an "S" dermatome?

dermatome with a spinal nerve entering the spinal cord at the level of the sacrum (last bone in the spinal column)

25

How does the face send sensory information?

through the cranial nerves to the brain

26

sebaceous glands
oil glands

a type of exocrine gland that secretes sebum through a duct that goes into a hair follicle

27

exocrine gland

gland that secretes its products through ducts opening onto an epithelium instead of into the bloodstream

28

sebum

consists of oil that coats and protects the hair shaft to keep it from becoming brittle

29

sweat glands

exocrine glands in the dermis that secrete sweat onto the surface fo the skin through a pore

30

What does sweat contain?

- water
- sodium
- small amounts of body wastes
> ammonia
> creatinine
> urea

31

What actually causes the odor associated with sweat?

the waste products of bacteria on the surface of the skin that digest sebum and sweat

32

perspiration

the process of sweating and the sweat itself

33

sudoriferous glands

sweat glands

34

follicle

small sac in the dermis in which a hair forms

35

What does hair contain?

- melanocytes (to give color to the hair)
- keratin (to make the hair shaft strong)

36

piloerection

when the skin is cold, a tiny erector muscle at the base of the hair follicle contracts and causes the hair to stand up

37

What does piloerection do in furry animals?

creates an insulating layer and traps heat near the skin

38

What do the nails do?

cover and protect the distal ends of the fingers and toes because these areas are easily traumatized

39

nail plate

the tough, opaque outer layer of the nails
- composed of dead cells containing keratin
- rests on the nail bed

40

nail bed
quick

layer of living tissue that contains nerve cells and blood vessels

41

What gives the nail plate its color?

blood vessels in the nail bed

42

cuticle

an edge of dead cells arising from the skin along the proximal end of the nail

43

nail root

- located beneath the skin of the finger
- produces keratin-containing cells that form the nail plate

44

lunula

visible, white part of the nail root
- the whitish half-moon

45

subcutaneous tissue

loose, connective tissue
- not considered to be part of the integumentary system
- composed of adipose tissue
- could be from very thin to several inches thick

46

adipose tissue

fat that contains lipocytes

47

lipocytes

cells in the subcutaneous tissue that store fat as an energy reserve

48

What are the functions of the subcutaneous tissue?

- provides a layer of insulation to conserve internal body heat
- acts as a cushion to protect the bones and internal organs
- stores energy

49

allergy
allergic reaction

a hypersensitivity response to certain types of antigens known as allergens

50

allergens

certain types of antigens
- cells from plant and animal sources
> food
> pollens
> molds
> animal dander
- dust
- chemicals
- drugs

51

histamine

a chemical involved in all allergic reactions

52

What cells release histamine in an allergic reaction?

- basophils in the blood
- mast cells in the connective tissue

53

local reaction

allergic reaction occurring when an allergen touches the skin or mucous membranes of a hypersensitive individual
- redness (erythema)
- swelling (edema)
- irritation
- itching (pruritus)

54

systemic reaction

allergic reaction occurring when allergens are inhaled by, ingested by, or injected into a hypersensitive person, causing symptoms in several body systems, and histamine:
- constricts the bronchioles
- dialates the blood vessels throughout the body
- causes hives on the skin

55

anaphylaxis
anaphylactic shock

severe systemic allergic reaction that can be life threatening

symptoms include:
- respiratory distress
- hypotension
- shock

56

What are some possible causes of anaphylaxis?

- eating peanuts
- being stung by a bee
- taking a drug that has caused a past allergic reaction
- being exposed to latex gloves

57

superficial wounds

open wounds that damage only the epidermis

58

partial thickness wounds

open wounds that damage both the epidermis and the dermis

59

full-thickness wounds

open wounds that penetrate into or beyond the subcutaneous tissue

60

acne

a condition of clogged oil pores

61

What is the purpose of the cuticle?

to prevent microorganisms from entering the nail root

62

What are the layers of the epidermis?

- the dead, outer layer consisting of keratin-containing cells
- the basal layer