Skeletal System - Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Skeletal System - Anatomy Deck (99):
1

axial skeleton

the bones of the head, chest, and back

2

appendicular skeleton

the bones of the shoulders, arms, hips, and legs

3

cranium

skull

4

frontal bone

forehead bone
- upper part of eye sockets
- extends of the middle of the top of the head

5

parietal bones

bones forming the upper posterior part of the cranium

6

sagittal suture

suture running from front to back

7

occipital bone

bone forming the posterior base of the cranium

8

formamen magnum

hole in the occipital bone through which the spine passes to connect to the brain

9

temporal bones

form the lower sides of the cranium

10

mastoid process

projection from the temporal bone just behind the ear

11

styloid

a point of attachment on the inferior temporal bone for tends to the muscles of the tongue and pharynx and for ligaments to the hyoid bone in the throat

12

syphenoid bone

a large irregularly shaped bone that forms part of the central base and sides of the cranium and the posterior walls of the eye sockets
- tendons attach to move mandible
- holds pituary gland

13

ethmoid bone

forms the poster of nasal septum that divides the nasal cavity into right and left sides and forms the medial walls of the eye sockets

14

facial bones

bones
- supporting the tissues of the face (the nose, cheeks, and lips)
- protecting the eyes and internal structures of the nose, mouth, and upper throat

15

nasal bones

form the upper nose and the upper nasal cavity

16

vomer

narrow wall of bone that forms the inferior part of the nasal septum and continues posteriorly to join the sphenoid bone

17

lacrimal bones

bones in eye socket
- near lacrimal (tear) glands

18

zygoma
zygomatic bone

cheek bone

19

maxilla

upper jaw bone

20

maxillary bones

two bones fused in middle to form maxilla

21

palatine bones

small, flat bones that form the posterior hard palate

22

mandible

lower jaw bone
- only moveable bone in skull
- connects with temporal bone

23

fontanels

the layers of fibrous tissue between the frontal and parietal bones of a newborn or young child

24

ossicles

three bones of the inner ear
- malleus
- incus
- stapes

25

hyoid bone

flat, U-shaped bone in the anterior neck
- attached to tendons that go to the tongue and larynx

26

thorax

rib cage

27

sternum
breast bone

bone in center of anterior thorax

28

parts of the sternum

- manubrium (triangular)
- body of the sternum
- xiphoid process (sharp)

29

how many ribs?

12

30

how many true ribs?

7

31

costal cartilate

attaches ribs to sternum

32

costochondral joint

where cartilage meets rib

33

false ribs

attached:
- spinal column posteriorly
- indirectly to sternum anteriorly

34

floating ribs

ribs 11-12 attached only to spinal column

35

spine
backbone

vertical column of bones
- supports head, neck, and trunk of body
- protects spinal cord

36

regions of spine

cervical
thoracic
lumbar
sacrum
coccyx

37

cervical vertebrae

in neck

38

thoracic vertebrae

in chest

39

lumbar vertebrae

in lower back

40

sacrum

fused vertebrae making posterior triangular part of hip bone

41

coccyx
tail bone

fused vertebrae below sacrum

42

foramen

hole that spine goes through

43

spinous process

part of vertebrae going posteriorly

44

transverse processes

parts of vertebrae going out sideways

45

intervertebral disks

cushiony pillow between vertebrae

46

nucleus pulposus

gelatinous substance in inside of intervertebral disks

47

clavicle
collar bone

top shoulder bone

48

scapula
shoulder blade

triangular-shaped bone on either side of spinal column in upper back

49

acromion

flat projection in scapula that connects it to the clavicle

50

glenoid fossa

shallow depression where the head of the humerus scapula

51

humerus

long bone in upper arm

52

radius

forearm bone on thumb side

53

ulna

forearm bone on non-thumb side

54

olecranon

large, square projection at end of ulna that forms the point of the elbow

55

carpal bones

8 bones in wrist

56

metacarpal bones

bones in hand
- one for each finger

57

phalanges

bones of fingers

58

digits
rays

fingers

59

pelvis

includes hip bones and sacrum and coccyx of the spinal column

60

illium

most superior hip bone
- broad flaring rim (illiac crest)

61

acetabulum

deep socket of hip joint

62

ischium

most inferior hip bone
- "sit bones"

63

pubis
pubic bone

small bridgelike bone
- most anterior of the hip bones

64

pubic symphisis

cartilage pad between the halves of the pubic bone

65

femur

upper leg bone

66

tibia
shin bone

large bone of the lower leg

67

medial malleolus

bony prominence at the distal end of the tibia

68

fibula

very thin bone on the lateral side of the lower leg
- not weight-bearing

69

lateral malleolus

bony prominence on the distal end of the fibula

70

patella

kneecap

71

tarsal bones

ankle bones

72

calcaneus
heel bone

largest tarsal bone

73

metatarsal bones

bones in midfoot

74

hallux

the great toe

75

joints

where two bones come together

76

suture joint

immovable with no cartilage
- between two cranial bones

77

symphysis joint

slightly movable joint with a fibrocartilage pad or disk between the bones

78

synovial joint

fully moveable joint
- hinge joints
- ball-and-socket joints

79

articular cartilage

covers ends of bones of synovial joints

80

ligaments

strong fibrous bands of connective tissue that hold the two bones together at a synovial joint

81

joint capsule

encases an entire synovial joint
- fibrous outer layer
- synovial membrane

82

synovial membrane

membrane in the interior of the joint capsule producing synovial fluid

83

synovial fluid

clear, thick fluid that lubricates a synovial joint

84

meniscus

special crescent-shaped cartilage pad found in some joints

85

osseous tissue

bone
- type of connective tissue

86

periosteum

thick, fibrous membrane that covers the surface of a bone

87

diaphysis

straight shaft in long bone

88

epiphyses

the two widened ends of a long bone

89

epiphysial plates

- where the shaft meets the larger end
- growth line

90

cortical bone

layer of dense compact bone
- along the diaphysis
- for weight-bearing

91

medullary cavity

filled with yellow bone that contains fatty tissue
- inside cortical bone

92

cancellous bone

spongy bone in the epiphysis
- less dense than compact bone

93

spaces in between cancellous bone

filled with red bone marrow

94

ossification

the gradual replacing of cartilage with bone
- takes place during childhood and adolescence

95

how much of the skeleton is broken down and rebuilt per year?

about 10%
- occurs in areas that are damaged or subjugated to mechanical stress

96

osteoclasts

break down areas of old or damaged bone

97

osteoblasts

deposit new bone tissue in the areas the osteoclasts have broken down

98

osteocytes

maintain and monitor the mineral content of te bone

99

calcium

mineral mostly stored in bone
- needed by heart and skeletal muscle