Flashcards in Intracranial tumor Deck (67)
What are the two most common cancers in children?
1st is meningiomas
Then cancers of the nervous system
What is the most common 2 types of tumors of the nervous system?
Gliomas and meningiomas are the most common.
90% of all tumors
In children where in the brain do tumors most commonly grow and what type of tumor is that?
Most of tumours in the Cerebellum,
The tumor type is PNET (medulloblastoma)
In adult where in the brain do tumors most commonly grow and what type of tumor is that?
Most of the tumors from in the Cerebrum
They are either Glioma and Meningioma
What type of tumor of the nervous system is common in men and ladies.
What are the 3 structures that tumors can grow in in the CNS?
Arachnoid membrane and pia-matter
What are all the different types of of glia cells? What is each of there functions
Astrocytes (support and protect)
Ependymal cells and choroid plexus cells (CSF)
Where is microglia produced?
In the bone marrow and then migrate to the blood stream
What is Microglia ?
Microglia are a type of glial cell that are the resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, and thus act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS)
What are the characteristics of a benign tumor?
Respect surrounding tissue
What are the characteristics of a Malignant tumor?
Invade and destroy surrounding tissue
Surgery and adjuvant therapy
What is the Grading and biological behaviour in brain tumours?
I: benign, no recurrence, no/very slow progression
II: low grade, progression (Astrocytoma 6-7y)
III: high grade, rapid progression (Astrocytoma 2-3 y)
IV: aggressive --> die within one year
What is the histological criteria for malignancy in brain tumour?
Cellular density and atypia
Mitotic activity --> if you see this its grade 3
Vascular proliferation --> see this and or necrosis --> glyglastoma is stage 4
What is a glioma?
A malignant tumour of the glial tissue of the nervous system.
GIve 3 examples of gliomas
What are the microscopical features of astrocytic Tumours?
Fine fibrillary and microcystic background
Increased cellular density
Pleomorphism ( variation in size, shape and chromasia)
What is the characteristics of Diffuse astrocytoma II?
Infiltrative, microcystic, fibrillary
Low cellular density
No mitotic activity
what is the characterstics of Anaplastic astrocytoma III?
Moderate cellular density
Moderate Pleomorphism --> more than one form
What is the characterstics Glioblastoma IV?
High cellular density and mitoses
What group of people is Pilocytic astrocytoma I common in? Where in the CNS does it effect?
Children and affects the cerebellum
What are the characteristics of Pilocytic astrocytoma I?
Pilocytes --> very thin like hair
What are the characteristics of Oligodendroglioma II / III ?
Round uniform nuclei with clear cytoplasm (fried-egg appearance)
Arborising capillaries (chicken wire)
What are the characteristics of OEpendymoma II / III?
Well-defined tumour, ventricles
Round small uniform cells
What are the characteristics of Meningioma I ?
Females, dura, adults
Well-defined extra-axial tumour
Whorls, psammoma bodies
Usually benign and arise from meningeal tissue of the brain
What is the prognossis of Meningioma I ?
What group of people is PNET (medulloblastoma) IV common in? Where does it effect?
What is the characteristics of PNET (medulloblastoma) IV?
Very high cellular density
Anaplastic hyperchromatic cells
Frequent mitoses and apoptosis
GIve me three examples of nerve sheath tumours
What are the characteristics of Schwannoma I?
8th cranial nerve
Biphasic pattern: loose and dense areas