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Flashcards in Intracranial tumor Deck (67)
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1

What are the two most common cancers in children?

1st is meningiomas
Then cancers of the nervous system

2

What is the most common 2 types of tumors of the nervous system?

Gliomas and meningiomas are the most common.
90% of all tumors

3

In children where in the brain do tumors most commonly grow and what type of tumor is that?

Most of tumours in the Cerebellum,
The tumor type is PNET (medulloblastoma)

4

In adult where in the brain do tumors most commonly grow and what type of tumor is that?

Most of the tumors from in the Cerebrum
They are either Glioma and Meningioma

5

What type of tumor of the nervous system is common in men and ladies.

Males: Gliomas
Females: Meningioma

6

What are the 3 structures that tumors can grow in in the CNS?

Arachnoid membrane and pia-matter
Blood vessels
Glia

7

What are all the different types of of glia cells? What is each of there functions

Astrocytes (support and protect)
Oligodendrocytes (myelin
Ependymal cells and choroid plexus cells (CSF)
Microglia (defense)

8

Where is microglia produced?

In the bone marrow and then migrate to the blood stream

9

What is Microglia ?

Microglia are a type of glial cell that are the resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, and thus act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS)

10

What are the characteristics of a benign tumor?

Slow growing
Respect surrounding tissue
No/slow progression
No recurrence
Surgery

11

What are the characteristics of a Malignant tumor?

Rapid growing
Invade and destroy surrounding tissue
Progress
Recurrent
Surgery and adjuvant therapy

12

What is the Grading and biological behaviour in brain tumours?

I: benign, no recurrence, no/very slow progression
II: low grade, progression (Astrocytoma 6-7y)
III: high grade, rapid progression (Astrocytoma 2-3 y)
IV: aggressive --> die within one year

13

What is the histological criteria for malignancy in brain tumour?

Cellular density and atypia

Mitotic activity --> if you see this its grade 3

Necrosis

Vascular proliferation --> see this and or necrosis --> glyglastoma is stage 4

14

What is a glioma?

A malignant tumour of the glial tissue of the nervous system.

15

GIve 3 examples of gliomas

Astrocytic tumours
Oligodendroglioma
Ependymoma

16

What are the microscopical features of astrocytic Tumours?

Fine fibrillary and microcystic background

Increased cellular density

Pleomorphism ( variation in size, shape and chromasia)

17

What is the characteristics of Diffuse astrocytoma II?

Infiltrative, microcystic, fibrillary

Low cellular density

Mild atypia

No mitotic activity

18

what is the characterstics of Anaplastic astrocytoma III?

Moderate cellular density

Moderate Pleomorphism --> more than one form

Mitoses

19

What is the characterstics Glioblastoma IV?

High cellular density and mitoses

Necrosis

Vascular proliferation

20

What group of people is Pilocytic astrocytoma I common in? Where in the CNS does it effect?

Children and affects the cerebellum

21

What are the characteristics of Pilocytic astrocytoma I?

Well-defined, cystic
Pilocytes --> very thin like hair
Rosenthal fibres
Vascular proliferation
Good prognosis

22

What are the characteristics of Oligodendroglioma II / III ?

Round uniform nuclei with clear cytoplasm (fried-egg appearance)

Arborising capillaries (chicken wire)

Calcifications

23

What are the characteristics of OEpendymoma II / III?

Well-defined tumour, ventricles

Pseudorosettes

Round small uniform cells

24

What are the characteristics of Meningioma I ?

Females, dura, adults

Well-defined extra-axial tumour

Whorls, psammoma bodies

Usually benign and arise from meningeal tissue of the brain

25

What is the prognossis of Meningioma I ?

Usually benign

26

What group of people is PNET (medulloblastoma) IV common in? Where does it effect?

Children, cerebellum

27

What is the characteristics of PNET (medulloblastoma) IV?

Very high cellular density
Anaplastic hyperchromatic cells
Frequent mitoses and apoptosis
Rosette formation

28

GIve me three examples of nerve sheath tumours

Spindle-cell tumours
Schwannoma I
Neurofibroma I

29

What are the characteristics of Schwannoma I?

8th cranial nerve
Biphasic pattern: loose and dense areas
Reticulin

30

What are the characteristics of Neurofibroma I?

Spinal nerves
Rich in collagen