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Flashcards in stroke Deck (89)
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1

how long does Stroke last?

Symptoms lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death

2

when is a stroke classed as a TIa?

Symptoms lasting less than 24 hours classified as a Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)

3

what characterestic a key to the diagnosis of stroke?

Sudden onset
Focal neurological deficit
Of presumed vascular origin
Symptoms lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death

4

what factors are excluded as causing a stroke?

lesions associated with trauma, infection or tumour, retinal infarction and most cases of subarachnoid heamorrhage

5

what are the two types of stroke?

cerebral infarction
cerebral heamorrhage

6

which is more common stroke infraction or haemorrhage?

infarction is more common
85% of cases?

7

are the symtpoms or infarction and heamorrhage the same?

yes the symptos of both is the same if they occur in the same part of the brain

8

how can stroke differ in symptoms?

They differ because strokes can affect on different parts of the brain. Depending where the stroke takes place depends what symptoms you get

9

what occurs in cerebral infarction?

there is no oxygen going to the brain

10

what occurs in cerebral heamorrhage?

there is a bleed in the brain

11

how often is stroke caused by a haemorrhage?

15% of the time

12

how can you tell the difference between cereberal infacrtion or heamorrhage?

either by post mortem or by MRI scans

13

what is the pathophysiology of acute ischaemic stroke?

Initial reduction in cerebral blood flow

Alterations in cellular chemistry caused by the ischaemia
Cellular necrosis

14

when is acte ischaemic stroke reversible?

when necrosis of the brain has not occured. Once necrosis occurs it is irreversible

15

what percentage of oxygen consumption goes to the brain at rest?

20%

16

can brain strore oxygen?

no

17

what is the cerebral flood flow of the brain?

800 mL/min (15% cardiac output)

18

what is the average weight of the brain?

1400 g (2% body weight

19

what is the equation to flow?

Flow = pressure / resistance

20

what does CPP stand for?

cerebral partial pressure

21

what does CVR stand for?

cerebralvascular resistance

22

what does CBV stand for?

cerebral blood volume

23

what happens to the blood vessels in the brain if PaC02 increase?

this causes the blood vessels to dilate --> reduction in resistance and increase in blood flow --> occurs in occlusion of blood vessels

24

what is the substrate for energy metabolism for the brain?

only glucose 75-100 mg/min or 125 g/day

25

how is glucose metabolised in the brain?

Glucose is metabolised by the glycolytic sequence and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

26

why do neurones need a constant supply of ATP?

For neurones to maintain integrity --> K+ inside and Na+ and Ca2+ outside the cell.
ATP cannot be stored

27

in aerobic respiration how many moles of ATP is produced by pyruvate?

36

28

in anerobic respiration how many moles of ATP is produced by pyruvate?

2

29

how many moles of pyruvate is produced by glucose? What is the name of the process and what is the byproduct?

produces 2m of Pyruvate
glycolysis is the reaction
2m of ATP produced

30

what is the first thing that is affected in cerebral ischemia?

electrical function is impaired