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Flashcards in Dementia Deck (55)
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1

Define dementia?

Dementia is a progressive and largely irreversible syndrome that is characterised by a widespread impairment of mental function.

2

Can dementia have different affects on diffrent people?

Yes depending what part of the brain is affected determiens the symptoms

3

What are the conditions that mimic dementia?

Depression
Iatrogenic (anticholinergics, sedatives, narcotics, H2 blockers, multiple meds)
Hypothyroidism
B12 deficiency
Neurosyphilis
Normal pressure hydrocephalus  need to number of lumbar punctures to reduce pressure
Subdural hematoma
Encephalitis

4

what is the classification of dementia?

Based on site
Anterior/posterior
or
Subcortical/cortical

5

Give examples MOVEMENT DISORDERS?

Parkinson’s Disease

Huntington’s Disease
Motor Neuron Disease

Parkinson plus syndrome
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Multiple System Atrophy
Corticobasal Degeneration

6

What are symptoms of Frontotemporal Dementia?

Behavioural/frontal variant
Non-fluent progressive aphasia
Semantic Dementia

7

What are the current molecular - genetic classification of neurodegenerative diseases. Example of each

Tauopathies
Corticobasal Degeneration*
Alzheimer’s Disease

Synucleinopathies
Parkinson’s Disease
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
MSA

Ubiquinopathies
Motor neuron disease and MND/Dementia*
Semantic Dementia*

8

What is the triad of symptoms of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus?

Dementia
Gait disturbance

Urinary incontinence
occuring in conjunction with hydrocephalus and normal CSF pressure (possibly, intermittently raised a better term).

9

What are the two types of normal pressure hydrocephalus?

NPH with a preceding cause (SAH, meningitis, trauma, radiation-induced).

NPH with no known preceding cause – idiopathic (50%).

10

What will be seen in MRI of a person with Varient CJD?

Characteristic abnormality seen in the posterior thalamic region (the so
called “pulvinar sign”) which is highly sensitive and specific for vCJD

11

What will be seen in MRI of a person with sporadic CJD?

Non-specific
changes basal
ganglia

12

What are common symptoms of a person with Cortical basal degeneration ?

Gain difficulty with one side of the arm mainly right --> hard to control
Then over a couple of months develop similar problems in the leg.
Speech becomes sparse
Bradykinetic on right, no tremore and midl rigidity

13

Key facts of Limbic Encephalitis due to Voltage Gated Potassium Channel ?

Subacute memory loss
Psychiatric/behavioural disturbance
Seizures, usually partial
Hyponatraemia common
60 % show MTL high signal on MRI
Most cases serum and CSF antibodies to LGI1 subunit of the K channel, others CASPR2
Median age 65 years, 2:1 male:female
Thymoma/SCLC and other tumour may be present but are not commonly associated (more so if CASPR2 ab.)
If no tumour prognosis very good with immuno-modulation
Blood test is used

14

What discrimination occurs with dementia?

Significant misunderstanding about and stigma attached to dementia

Manifests itself in widespread discriminatory attitudes. 

Age discrimination.

Risk of discrimination and infringements of their human rights because they may not have the capacity to challenge abuses of their human rights or to report what has occurred.

Fear of the diagnosis

Misunderstandings about dementia: that it is a natural part of ageing, that it only affects older people and that nothing can be done to help people live well with it

Poor quality care and failure to deliver services

Avoidance of people with dementia

15

What is the limbic system involved in? If there is disorder what happens?

Limbic system: arousal, emotion, motivation, attention, and memory

Lack of emotion, lack of motivation and memory. The people are always sad and disinterested

16

What is the action of parietal lobe?

Executive functions: motor, planning,, strategic thinking

17

What is the role of hippocampus?

Major memory sight --> where new memory is formed and stored

18

What sight in the brain is damaged mainly in alzheimer's disease?

Hippocampus

19

What is cognition?

Is the sum of brain functions which allows us to integrate in the environment.

20

What skills are invovled in cognition?

Learning and Memory
Language
visuospatial skills
Emotion
Personality

21

What is the route of the microcircuit of the brain?

Neuron > Synapse > neurotransmitter > action potential

If the neurone dies it cannot be regenerated --> depending where it is that function will be lost.

22

What are the differenet classifications of Neurodegenerative disorders?

Give examples of each

Functional
Cognitive disorders, e.g. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)
Movement disorders, e.g. Parkinson disease (PD

Anatomical --> Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Corticobasal degeneration (CBD

Etiological, vascular dementia (VaD), Prion disease

Proteinopathy,Taupathy (AD), α-Synucleinopathy (DLB)

23

What cognitive disorder effects Temporal, parietal and frontal degeneration?

Alzheimers

24

What cognitive disorder effects Cognitive and movement?

Dementia with Lewy body (DLB)

25

What cognitive disorder caues Multifocal degeneration?

Corticobasal degeneration (CBD

26

Is alzheimers usually inherited?

No usually sporadic

27

What are teh 4 main proteins invovled in cognitive defect?

Β-amyloid

Tau

α-synclein

Ubiquitin

28

What are Amyloid proteins?

Insoluble fibrous proteins aggregates sharing specific structural traits

29

How do amyloiud proteins arise and what is the consequense?

They arise from at least from 18 inappropriately folded versions of proteins and polypeptides present naturally in the body.

These misfolded structures alter their proper configuration such that they erroneously interact with one another or other cell components forming insoluble fibrils.

30

What is the conseuqence of the accumulation of amyloid proteins?

Abnormal accumulation of amyloid fibrils in organs may lead to amyloidosis, and may play a role in various neurodegenerative disorders (β-amyloid