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Flashcards in MS Deck (83)
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1

What are symptoms of Optic neuritis??

Pain in the right eye with blurred vision

Can lose complete vision in one of the eyes

2

What is optic neuritis?

Inflammation of the optic nerve

3

On examination what would identify on a patient with optic neuritis?

Reduced colour vision (Ishihara chart)

Reduced pupillary light responses (RAPD)

Hole in visual field (scotoma)

4

What is the prognosis of optic neuritis?

Good prognosis: 95% return to visual acuity of 6/12 or greater within 12 months

5

What is the treatment of optic neuritis?

High dose steroids speed up rate of recovery but have no effect on final acuity

Prednisolone is used

6

What percentage of people with optic neuritis will develop Ms?

50% go on to develop MS within 10 years

7

What is the role of MRI scan in optic neuritis?

Role of MRI tell you what type of optic neuritis it is and give some sort of insight whether or not it will lead to MS

8

What is transverse myelitis?

Inflammation inside the spinal chord

9

What is the prognosis of transverse myelitis?

Often mild with good prognosis

10

What is the symptoms of transverse myelitis?

Can get complains of tingly numbness starting in both feet and gradually ascending to level around chest

Lhermittes phenomenon--> is an electrical sensation that runs down the back and into the limbs which occurs when bending the head forward

11

What can be a complication of transverse myelitis?

May affect the bladder

12

What type of sensation is lost in transverse myelitis?

Pure sensory

13

What is the percentage chance of developing Ms if you have transverse myelitis?

50% go on to develop Multiple Sclerosis

14

How do you diagnose Ms?

Having 2 different diseases such as optic neuritis and transverse myelitis at different times.

They cannot happen at the same time and the same disease cannot occur twice for it to be diagnosed as Ms.

15

What is the treatment for Transverse myelitis?

Treated with intravenous methylprednisolone 1g daily for 3 days

16

What is Ms?

MS is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS)

17

What is the mechanism in causing MS?

An inflammatory reaction in the CNS causes loss of myelin and slowing of nerve conduction

Areas of demyelination

Loss of axons

18

How common is MS in the UK?

It is the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults in the uk

19

Is MS more common in males or ladies?

2F/1M

20

What is the age of onset of MS and ethnicitiy suscepitbility?

Age of onest is 30-40yrs

Northern Europeans, US caucasians and Canadians are at high risk while African blacks and orientals are at low risk.

21

What is the epidemiology and latitude effect on MS?

Prevelance strongle dependent on latitude

Environmental factors such as habitat, diet and infections also have a part to play

22

What is action of lymphocytes in MS?

The CD4 T lymphocytes release a large amount of cytokines that cuase activation of immune system which leads to a problem in myelnation

23

What occurs in terms of myelination during MS?

There is demyelination as the immune system damages the oligodendryocytes that are invovled in the process of myelination.

There is also damage to the meylination and therefore diffuclt for the process of signaling

24

What is the main treatment for MS?

Interferon beta 1-b

Interferon beta-1a)

Glatiramer acetate

Alemtuzumab

Natalizumab (Tysabri

25

What is the aim of treatments for MS?

Not a cure but try to prevent a relapse as every time you have a relapse the disability increases

26

What is the effectivness of inferferon beta drug work on preventing MS?

Reduces the number of relapses by a third

Effective early in the disease course

No evidence on long-term effect on disability

27

What is the site of infection, frequency and side effects of Betaferon 1b?

SC

Alternative days

Flu- like symtpoms

Injection sight reactions

28

What is the site of infection, frequency and side effects of Avonex 1a?

IM

Once week

FLS

29

What is the site of infection, frequency and side effects of Rebif 1a?

SC

3 times/week

ISR

30

What is the site of infection, frequency and side effects of Glatiramer acetate?

SC

daily

Acute reaction