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1

A-Mode

Amplitude Modulation

Distance between transducer and structure determines where an echo is seen along hte time axis

1 dimensional image

Not used anymore

2

Analog Scan Converter

device in which data are represented by variable, measurable, physical quantities. Length, width, voltage or pressure

3

B-Mode

2D presentation of echo producing interfaces.

A mode signal converted to dots which vary in brightness depending on echo strength

Brightness Modulation

4

Cavitation

formation of cavities in a body tissue or an organ resulting from the sudden formation and collapse of low pressure bubbles by means of mechanical forces

5

Digital Scan Converter

image processing device that uses a stable electronic circuit to store and manipulate ultrasonic images in memory. The device then reconstructs and displays these images simultaneously to create one image

6

Doppler effect

change in observed frequency of a wave. Freq increases as source and observer get closer, decreases as they move apart

7

Gray Scale Imaging

series of shades from black to white the more shades the more realistically an image can be recorded and displayed

8

M-Mode

series of B-Mode dots are displayed on moving time base graph to show moving structures

basis of echocariography prior to real time scanning

used in conjunction with real time imaging in adult, pediatric and fetal echo

9

Piezoelectric Effect

Mechanical deformation occurs when an electrical field is applied to a crystal the crystal vibrates mechanically. When a crystal vibrates mechanically it creates an electrical field

10

3-D imaging

waves sent from many directions to the returns are used to build a volume image in 3 dimensions

11

4-D Imaging

3-d imaging with the addition of real time

12

Ultrasound

sound with freq above the limits of human hearing greater than 20kHz

13

Transverse Waves

Waves that move in an up and down motoin

14

Longitudinal Waves

Waves that move in a line

15

Compression

area of wave that gets closer together

16

Rarefaction

area of wave that spreads apart

17

Medium

material through which a wave is transmitted

18

Accoustic parameters

period

frequency

amplitude

power

intensity

wavelength

propagation

19

Period of wave

time

20

frequency of wave

1/time

21

amplitude of wave

"Bigness" of wave

dofference between peak and avg value of the wave

22

power

force

rate of energy transfer or rate which work is preformed

23

intensity

concentration of strength of a wave

Intensity = watts/cm^2

24

wavelength

distance from one peak to the next

25

propagation speed

speed wave travels through medium (avg 1540 soft tissue)

26

Hertz

measurement of frequency

27

Infrasound

sound below the human hearing level

28

Audible sound

20-20kHz

29

DMS frequency

2mHz-12mHz

30

Bio effects

any damage to tissue

ALARA as low as reasonably achievable

31

Intravascular Ultrasound

30MHz-40MHz

asses vessel walls characterize plaque morphology

transducer contained in a sheath attached to catheter

no air means high preq usable

32

Therapeutic Ultrasound

.5MHz-3MHz

beam intensity result in tissue temperature increases

4°C as deep as 5cm

increases blood flow

treats muscle spasms, tendonitis and bursitis

joint swelling

33

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

HIFU

used for selective destruction of tissue volumes

cancerous lesions  in liver, kidney, breast and prostate

focusing the beam allows energy concentration on affected area while sparing surround tissue

34

Wave Propagation

Worse in Gas

better in liquid

best in solids

35

Sound wave propagation

sound traveling pressure variation

regions of compression and rarefraction

particles vibrate back and forth

parallel to the directoin of travel

 

36

Mechanical Wave

needs physical interaction

must have medium

longitudinal 

transverse

37

Electromagnetic Waves

travel in medium or vacuum

light, heat, X-rays, gamma rays TV rays

transer of energy through a varying electrical and magnetic field

38

Acoustic variables

Pressure

Density

Temperature

particle motion

39

Pressure

concentration of force

Pascals

varies cyclically as sound wave propagates

40

Density

p=mass/volume

compression increases

rarefraction decreases

non linear imaging Harmonic Imaging

units kg/m3

41

Temperature

any mechanical movement produces heat

sound wave vibrate the tissue and some wave energy is lost to heat with tissue

important in Bioeffects

Celcius

Kelvin

Fahrenheit

42

Particel Motion

particels of tissue being imparted with momentum and traveling into the locale of the nearest neighbors

osscillate back and forth about their original location allowing energy to propagate along the wave p[ath

particles DO NOT travel with the wave

 

43

ALARA

As Low As Resonably Achievable

short scan time

low power settings

short use of color and spectral

44

Attenuation

decrease in wave amplitude due to mechanical wave interaction wiht mnedium

units dB

absorption

reflection

refraction

45

Absorption

conversion of energy from wave to heat within medium

as Freq increases amount of energy lost increases

 

46

Reflection

sound wave changes direction and does not continue to travel forward

returns to source

foundtation for diagnostic ultrasound

Ultrasound based on processing these refelctions

47

Refraction

bending of wave

change in propagation velocity when angle of incidence is other than 0

48

Anechoic

without echoes

cysts

fluid filled organs

49

Hypoechoic

low level reflected signals

50

Hyperechoic

highly echogenic tissues

moderate to high reflected signals

51

calcified echoes

strongly echoic

usually with acoustic shadows

52

Complex

mixed echogenicity

with or without shadowing

 

53

Transducers

Device that converts energy from one form to another

 

54

Transducer components

Crystal

matching layers

Damping material

Transducer case

electronic cable

55

Crystal

diameter determines beam shape

like beam of flashlight

shape is region in the patient which sound travels

56

matching layers

provide an acoustic connection between crystals and skin

reduces amount of reflection from large acoustic mismatch

allows wave to travel into the body

gel

57

Damping material

decrease secondary reverberations of crystal with returning signals

reduces the ring time and results in an increase in depth resolution (axial)

58

Trasducer Case

provides housing for all internal components

59

Electronic cable

caontains bundle wires to cary electrical signals to and from the crytals

60

B-scan (Static scan)

 

uses series of B-mode images to biuld a 2 d image of tissue

transducer attached to articulated arm to provide system with position and orientation

no longer used due to numerous drawbacks

61

Real Time B-Mode

provides cinematic view of the area being evaluated by displaying a rapid series of images sequentially

62

Real Time Imaging

all modern systems use real time approach

signals integrated into a scan converter for 2d image display

Real time movie

 

63

Frame Rate

Hz

images per second

2 factors Sound speed in medium

depth of imaging

higher frame rate better temporal resolution and image quality

64

Temporal resolution

ability to precisely position a moving structure

important in adult and fetal echo

high rate yields better movies but worse photographs

65

imaging depth

shallow depth incrases frame rate and resolution

deeper decreases frame rate and degrades resolution

depth and frame rate inversely related

operator controlled 

66

Focus

Single Focus

Multi Focus

67

Single Focus

only 1 sound pulse is transmitted down the scan line

high frame rate 

superior resolution

inferior lateral resolution

68

Multi Focus

Adj number of focus Pulses

longer time 

decreases frame rate

inferior temporal resolution

superior lateral resolution

69

lateral resolution

ability to distinguish between structures that are side by side

70

sector size

field of view

operator controlled

size increases number of pulses increases

 

71
reverse

Amplitude Modulation

Distance between transducer and structure determines where an echo is seen along hte time axis

1 dimensional image

Not used anymore

A-Mode

72
reverse

device in which data are represented by variable, measurable, physical quantities. Length, width, voltage or pressure

Analog Scan Converter

73
reverse

2D presentation of echo producing interfaces.

A mode signal converted to dots which vary in brightness depending on echo strength

Brightness Modulation

B-Mode

74
reverse

formation of cavities in a body tissue or an organ resulting from the sudden formation and collapse of low pressure bubbles by means of mechanical forces

Cavitation

75
reverse

image processing device that uses a stable electronic circuit to store and manipulate ultrasonic images in memory. The device then reconstructs and displays these images simultaneously to create one image

Digital Scan Converter

76
reverse

change in observed frequency of a wave. Freq increases as source and observer get closer, decreases as they move apart

Doppler effect

77
reverse

series of shades from black to white the more shades the more realistically an image can be recorded and displayed

Gray Scale Imaging

78
reverse

series of B-Mode dots are displayed on moving time base graph to show moving structures

basis of echocariography prior to real time scanning

used in conjunction with real time imaging in adult, pediatric and fetal echo

M-Mode

79
reverse

Mechanical deformation occurs when an electrical field is applied to a crystal the crystal vibrates mechanically. When a crystal vibrates mechanically it creates an electrical field

Piezoelectric Effect

80
reverse

waves sent from many directions to the returns are used to build a volume image in 3 dimensions

3-D imaging

81
reverse

3-d imaging with the addition of real time

4-D Imaging

82
reverse

sound with freq above the limits of human hearing greater than 20kHz

Ultrasound

83
reverse

Waves that move in an up and down motoin

Transverse Waves

84
reverse

Waves that move in a line

Longitudinal Waves

85
reverse

area of wave that gets closer together

Compression

86
reverse

area of wave that spreads apart

Rarefaction

87
reverse

material through which a wave is transmitted

Medium

88
reverse

period

frequency

amplitude

power

intensity

wavelength

propagation

Accoustic parameters

89
reverse

time

Period of wave

90
reverse

1/time

frequency of wave

91
reverse

"Bigness" of wave

dofference between peak and avg value of the wave

amplitude of wave

92
reverse

force

rate of energy transfer or rate which work is preformed

power

93
reverse

concentration of strength of a wave

Intensity = watts/cm^2

intensity

94
reverse

distance from one peak to the next

wavelength

95
reverse

speed wave travels through medium (avg 1540 soft tissue)

propagation speed

96
reverse

measurement of frequency

Hertz

97
reverse

sound below the human hearing level

Infrasound

98
reverse

20-20kHz

Audible sound

99
reverse

2mHz-12mHz

DMS frequency

100
reverse

any damage to tissue

ALARA as low as reasonably achievable

Bio effects

101
reverse

30MHz-40MHz

asses vessel walls characterize plaque morphology

transducer contained in a sheath attached to catheter

no air means high preq usable

Intravascular Ultrasound

102
reverse

.5MHz-3MHz

beam intensity result in tissue temperature increases

4°C as deep as 5cm

increases blood flow

treats muscle spasms, tendonitis and bursitis

joint swelling

Therapeutic Ultrasound

103
reverse

used for selective destruction of tissue volumes

cancerous lesions  in liver, kidney, breast and prostate

focusing the beam allows energy concentration on affected area while sparing surround tissue

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

HIFU

104
reverse

Worse in Gas

better in liquid

best in solids

Wave Propagation

105
reverse

sound traveling pressure variation

regions of compression and rarefraction

particles vibrate back and forth

parallel to the directoin of travel

 

Sound wave propagation

106
reverse

needs physical interaction

must have medium

longitudinal 

transverse

Mechanical Wave

107
reverse

travel in medium or vacuum

light, heat, X-rays, gamma rays TV rays

transer of energy through a varying electrical and magnetic field

Electromagnetic Waves

108
reverse

Pressure

Density

Temperature

particle motion

Acoustic variables

109
reverse

concentration of force

Pascals

varies cyclically as sound wave propagates

Pressure

110
reverse

p=mass/volume

compression increases

rarefraction decreases

non linear imaging Harmonic Imaging

units kg/m3

Density

111
reverse

any mechanical movement produces heat

sound wave vibrate the tissue and some wave energy is lost to heat with tissue

important in Bioeffects

Celcius

Kelvin

Fahrenheit

Temperature

112
reverse

particels of tissue being imparted with momentum and traveling into the locale of the nearest neighbors

osscillate back and forth about their original location allowing energy to propagate along the wave p[ath

particles DO NOT travel with the wave

 

Particel Motion

113
reverse

As Low As Resonably Achievable

short scan time

low power settings

short use of color and spectral

ALARA

114
reverse

decrease in wave amplitude due to mechanical wave interaction wiht mnedium

units dB

absorption

reflection

refraction

Attenuation

115
reverse

conversion of energy from wave to heat within medium

as Freq increases amount of energy lost increases

 

Absorption

116
reverse

sound wave changes direction and does not continue to travel forward

returns to source

foundtation for diagnostic ultrasound

Ultrasound based on processing these refelctions

Reflection

117
reverse

bending of wave

change in propagation velocity when angle of incidence is other than 0

Refraction

118
reverse

without echoes

cysts

fluid filled organs

Anechoic

119
reverse

low level reflected signals

Hypoechoic

120
reverse

highly echogenic tissues

moderate to high reflected signals

Hyperechoic

121
reverse

strongly echoic

usually with acoustic shadows

calcified echoes

122
reverse

mixed echogenicity

with or without shadowing

 

Complex

123
reverse

Device that converts energy from one form to another

 

Transducers

124
reverse

Crystal

matching layers

Damping material

Transducer case

electronic cable

Transducer components

125
reverse

diameter determines beam shape

like beam of flashlight

shape is region in the patient which sound travels

Crystal

126
reverse

provide an acoustic connection between crystals and skin

reduces amount of reflection from large acoustic mismatch

allows wave to travel into the body

gel

matching layers

127
reverse

decrease secondary reverberations of crystal with returning signals

reduces the ring time and results in an increase in depth resolution (axial)

Damping material

128
reverse

provides housing for all internal components

Trasducer Case

129
reverse

caontains bundle wires to cary electrical signals to and from the crytals

Electronic cable

130
reverse

uses series of B-mode images to biuld a 2 d image of tissue

transducer attached to articulated arm to provide system with position and orientation

no longer used due to numerous drawbacks

B-scan (Static scan)

 

131
reverse

provides cinematic view of the area being evaluated by displaying a rapid series of images sequentially

Real Time B-Mode

132
reverse

all modern systems use real time approach

signals integrated into a scan converter for 2d image display

Real time movie

 

Real Time Imaging

133
reverse

Hz

images per second

2 factors Sound speed in medium

depth of imaging

higher frame rate better temporal resolution and image quality

Frame Rate

134
reverse

ability to precisely position a moving structure

important in adult and fetal echo

high rate yields better movies but worse photographs

Temporal resolution

135
reverse

shallow depth incrases frame rate and resolution

deeper decreases frame rate and degrades resolution

depth and frame rate inversely related

operator controlled 

imaging depth

136
reverse

Single Focus

Multi Focus

Focus

137
reverse

only 1 sound pulse is transmitted down the scan line

high frame rate 

superior resolution

inferior lateral resolution

Single Focus

138
reverse

Adj number of focus Pulses

longer time 

decreases frame rate

inferior temporal resolution

superior lateral resolution

Multi Focus

139
reverse

ability to distinguish between structures that are side by side

lateral resolution

140
reverse

operator controlled

size increases number of pulses increases

 

sector size

field of view