Intro to Anatomy Lecture Flashcards Preview

MSK Week 1 > Intro to Anatomy Lecture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Anatomy Lecture Deck (62):
1

Rostral

Used with CNS to describe cephalad and anterior areas of the brain or head

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Cephalad

Towards the head

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Caudal

Towards the feet or tailbone

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Ipsilateral

Something occurring on the same side of the body as another structure

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Contralateral

Occurring on opposite sides of the body

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Circumduction

To move in a circle

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Radial Deviation

Lateral abduction of the wrist

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Ulnar deviation

Medial adduction of the wrist

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Medial

Towards the midline

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Lateral

Away from the midline, to the side

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Superficial

Higher

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Deep

Lower

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Anterior/Ventral

Front

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Dorsal/Posterior

Rear

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Superior

Above

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Inferior

Below

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Proximal

Closer

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Distal

Further

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Abduction

Movement away from the midline

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Adduction

Movement towards the midline

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Flexion

Angle reduction

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Extension

Angle increase

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Medial rotation

Internal rotation

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Lateral rotation

External rotation

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Supination

Soup motion, palms up

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Pronation

Palms down

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Elevation

To raise

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Depression

To lower

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Origin

Where the muscle begins

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Insertion

Where the muscle goes

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Agonist Muscle

Increases motion

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Antagonist Muscle

Decreases another muscle or moves in the opposite direction

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Synergistic

Muscles working together for one motion

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Axial Skeleton

Head, neck, trunk

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Appendicular Skeleton

Bones of the limbs

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3 Types of joints

1. Fibrous 2. Cartilagenous 3. Synovial

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Fibrous joint

Bone to bone

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Cartilagenous joint

Intervertebral disc or epiphyseal plates - Cartilage to bone

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Synovial Joint

Has synovial fluid, i.e., knee

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Differences between muscle types

Striated - Voluntary - Multiple peripherally located nuclei Cardiac - Involuntary - Single central nuclei Smooth - Involuntary - Unstriated, single central nucleus

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How many bones in each vertebral section?

Cervical - 7 Thoracic - 12 Lumbar - 5 Sacral - 5 fused Coccyx - 3 - 5 fused

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Pars

Portion of the vertebrae located between the superior and inferiorarticular processes of the facet joint

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Spondylolysis

fracture in typically the 5th lumbar vertebrae

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Spondylolithiases

When a spondylolysis fracture weakens the bone to the point that it cannot sustain proper positioning causing the vertbrae to shift out of place

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Zygopophysial joints

Another name for facets

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Kyphosis

Hunchback (hyperkyphosis = when upper angle of vertebrae (between vertebrae 1 - 12) goes from 20-40 degrees to 45+ degrees

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Scoliosis

Spine moves laterally in the middle instead of ventral/dorsal

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Lordosis

Swayback - Deep inward curve of lumbar spine

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Herniated Nucleus Pulposus

“Ruptured Disc” (HNP) - Typically in lumbar or cervical area, ruptured symphyseal joint caused by a degenerated annulus fibrosus tearing or pulling apart allowing the softer gel-like inner nucleus pulposus to extrude usually just lateral to the posterior longitudinal ligament

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How does the head rotate about the Dens?

Dens of C2 must move as a unit with C1 when the head is flexed or extended. Also, if the Dens is fractured and if the neck is then allowed to flex (bend forward) the unstable dens could be driven into the spinal cord = rapidly fatal

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What happens if neural tube does not close fully

Incomplete closing of the neural tude during development causing some vertebrae to not fully form and thus they remain open and unfused. If large enough, the spinal cord can drift out of the vertebrae, sometimes along with a fluid filled sack around this area

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Meningocele

Protrusion of the membranes that cover the spine and part of the spinal cord through a bone defect in the vertebral column. MM is due to failure of closure during embryonic life of bottom end of the neural tube, the structure which gives rise to the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). The term spina bifida refers specifically to the bony defect in the vertebral column through which the meningeal membrane and cord may protrude (spina bifida cystica) or may not protrude so that the defect remains hidden, covered by skin (spina bifida occulta). However, through usage the term spina bifida is gradually becoming synonymous with MM. The risk of MM (and all neural tube defects) can be decreased by the mother eating ample folic acid during pregnancy.

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Meningomyelocele

Worst case. Hole big enough for the cord to leave, gets trapped in the meninge to form a sac.

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Spina Bifida Occulta

Least worrisome, hole but no protrusion, usually no marks on skin

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Spina Bifida Cystica

Another name for meningomyelocele

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Osteophyte

A bone spur

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Fontanel

Wide sutures formed where more than two bones meet in the skull

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Epimere

Dorsal portion of a somite from which is formed muscles innervated by the dorsal ramus of the spinal nerve

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