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Regional anatomy

Organization of body into parts

1

Systemic anatomy

Organized by organ systems

2

Locomotor system

Skeletal, articular, and muscular systems

3

Integumentary system

Skin and it's appendages such as hair and nails

4

Skeletal system

Bones and cartilage
Support and protection

5

Muscular system

Consists of muscles

6

Articular system

Consists of joints and associated ligaments

7

Nervous system

CNS (brain and spinal cord) and pns (nerves and ganglia)

8

Circulatory system

Cardiovascular system: heart and blood vessels
Lymphoid system: consists of a network of lymphatic vessels that withdraw excess tissue fluid from the body's interstitial (intercellular) fluid compartment, filters it through lymph nodes and returns it to the blood stream

9

Digestive or alimentary system

Organs and glands associated with ingestion, mastication, deglutition (swallowing) digestion, and absorption of food and elimination of feces

10

Respiratory system

Consists of air passages and lungs that supply oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide

11

Urinary system

Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

12

Reproductive system

Obstetrics and gynecology, andrology for males

13

Endocrinology

Discrete ductless glands and other cells

14

Clinical (applied) anatomy

Aspects of the structure and function of body
Encompasses both regional and systemic approaches

15

Median or median sagittal plane

Vertical plane passing longitudinally through center of body dividing into right and left halves

16

Sagittal planes

Vertical planes passing through parallel to the median plane

17

Frontal (coronal) plane

Vertical planes dividing into anterior and posterior

18

Transverse planes or axial

Divides into superior and inferior

19

Inferomedial

Nearer to the feet, closer to the median plane

20

Superolateral

Nearer to head and farther from median plane

21

Dorsum

Refers to superior or dorsal (back) surface of any part that protrudes anteriorly from the body

22

Ipsilateral

Same side of body

23

Contralateral

Opposite side of body

24

Superficial

Nearer to surface

25

Intermediate

Between a superficial and deep structure

26

Deep

Farther from surface

27

Medial

Nearer to median plane

28

Lateral

Farther from median plane

29

Posterior or dorsal

Nearer to back

30

Inferior or caudal

Nearer to feet

31

Anterior or ventral

Nearer to front

32

Distal

Farther from trunk or point of origin

33

Proximal

Nearer to trunk or point of origin

34

Skin provides

Protection for the body
Containment of tissues. Organs and vital substances of the body, preventing dehydration
Heat regulation through sweat glands, blood vessels and fat deposits
Sensation
Synthesis and storage of vitamin d

35

Epidermis

Keratinized stratified epithelium
Avascular
Replaced every 25-45 days
Afferent nerve endings

36

Dermis

Dense layer of interlacing collagen and elastic fibers
Fibers provide skin tone and account for strength and toughness of skin

37

Direction of collagen fibers

Determines tension or cleavage lines and wrinkle lines

38

Deep layer of dermis

Hair follicles with associated smooth arrector muscles and sebaceous glands

39

Subcutaneous tissue or superficial fascia

Loose connective tissue and fat
Between dermis and deep fascia
Deepest parts of sweat glands, blood and lymphatic vessels, cutaneous nerves

40

Skin ligaments

Retinacula cutis
Extend through subcutaneous tissue and attach deep surface of dermis to deep fascia

41

Deep fascia

Dense, organized connective tissue layer devoid of fat that envelops most of the body deep to the skin and subcutaneous surface
Invest deeper structures: investing fascia
Divide muscles into groups: inter muscular septa
Lie between musculoskeletal walls and serous membranes lining body cavities: sub serous fascia

42

Retinacula

Formed by deep fascia
Hold tendons in place during joint movement

43

Bursae

Closed sacs containing fluid
Formed by deep fascia
Prevent friction and enable structures to move freely over another

44

Fascial planes

Potential spaces between adjacent fascias or fascia lined structures

45

Axial skeleton

Head, neck and trunk
Cranium or skull, cervical vertebrae, ribs, sternum, vertebrae and sacrum

46

Appendicular skeleton

Bones of limbs including those of pectoral and pelvic girdles

47

Bone provides

Protection
Support
Mechanical basis for movement
Storage for salts like calcium
Blood cells

48

Cartilage

Semirigid avascular connective tissue

49

Articular cartilage

Cap articulating surfaces of bones participating in a synovial joint

50

Periosteum

Fibrous connective tissue covering surrounding bone

51

Perichondrium

Surrounding cartilage elements excluding articular cartilage

52

Structure of bones

Superficial layer of compact bone on top of spongy or trabecular or cancellous bone except where it is replaced by medullary cavity

53

Compact bone

Provides strength for weight bearing
In long bones designed for rigidity and attachment of muscles and ligaments, compact bone is most in middle of shaft

54

Heterotopic bones

Bones form in soft tissues

55

Long bones

Tubular structures like humerus and phalanges

56

Short bones

Cuboidal and found only in ankle and wrist

57

Flat bones

Seve protective functions like those of cranium

58

Irregular bones

Those in face

59

Condyle

Rounded articular area

60

Sesamoid bones

Develop in certain tendons like patella

61

Crest

Ridge of bone

62

Epicondyle

Eminence superior to a condyle

63

Facet

Smooth flat area, usually covered with cartilage here a bone articulates with another bone

64

Foramen

Passage through a bone

65

Fossa

Hollow or depressed area

66

Line or linea

Linear elevation

67

Malleolus

Rounded prominence

68

Notch

Indentation at the edge of a bone

69

Process

Projecting spine like part

70

Protuberance

Projection of bone

71

Spine

Thorn like process

72

Trochanter

Large, blunt elevation

73

Tubercle

Small, raised eminence

75

Tuberosity

Large rounded elevation

76

collar of callus

fibroblasts create it by secreting collagen in the repair of a fracture to hold the bones together

77

In general, how are bones developed?

All bones derived from mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue) by intramembranous ossification (directly from mesenchyme) and endochondral ossification (from cartilage derived from mesenchyme)

78

Intramembranous ossification

Mesenchymal models of bone form during the embryonic period and direct ossification of the mesenchyme begins in the fetal period

79

endochondral ossification

cartilage models of bones form from mesenchyme during the fetal period, and bone subsequently replaces most of the cartilage

80

How long bones grow

Endochondral ossification
Mesenchymal cells condense and differentiate into chondroblasts
form cartilaginous bone model
in middle of bone model, cartilage calcifies and periosteal capillaries grow into the calcified cartilage
capillaries initiate primary ossification center
secondary ossification centers appear in other parts of developing bone after birth
at end of growth, primary and secondary fuse and epiphyseal plate is lost

81

periosteal bud

periosteal capillaries with the associated osteogenic cells

82

diaphysis

shaft of a bone ossified from primary ossification center

83

epiphyses

ossified from secondary ossification centers

84

metaphysis

flared part of diaphysis nearest to epiphysis

85

epiphyseal plate

cartilage that intervenes between diaphysis and epiphysis during growth

86

epiphyseal line

fusion of diaphysis and epiphysis

87

synostosis

process of fusion of epiphyseal plate

88

nutrient arteries

one or more per bone
arise outside periosteum, pass through shaft of long bone via nutrient foramina and split in the medullary cavity into longitudinal branches

89

nutrient arteries supply

bone marrow, spongy bone and deeper portions of compact bone

90

periosteal arteries

small branches supply most of compact bone

91

metaphysial and epiphyseal arteries

supply ends of bones. arise mainly from arteries that supply the joints

92

veins

acoompany arteries through nutrient foramina. many large veins leave through foramina near articular ends of bones

93

periosteal nerves

periosteum richly supplied with sensory nerves (periosteal nerves) that carry pain fibers

94

vasomotor nerves

cause constriction of dilation of blood vessels, regulating blood flow through the bone marrow

95

accessory bones

also called supernumerary bones
additional ossification centers appear and form extra bones. on of centers fails to fuse with main bone, giving appearance of an extra bone, but is a missing part of the main bone
common in the foot

96

criteria for determining bone age

appearance of calcified material in diaphysis and or epiphyses
disappearance of dark line representing the epiphyseal plate

97

fusion of epiphyses with the diaphysis occurs

1 to 2 years earlier in girls than in boys

98

separation of epiphysis

displaced epiphyseal plate can occur in children as opposed to a fracture in an adult

99

avascular necrosis

death of bone tissue due to a loss of blood supply to an epiphysis or other parts pof a bone
after every fracture, small areas of adjacent bone undergo necrosis

100

degenerative joint disease

articulation becomes vulnerable to repeated friction that occurs during joint movements

101

joint

an articulation or the lace of union or junction between two or more rigid components

102

three types of joints

fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

103

fibrous joints

united by fibrous tissue
syndesmosis, gomphosis

104

syndesmosis

type of fibrous joint that unites bones with a sheet of fibrous tissue, either a ligament of fibrous membrane. partially moveable

105

gomphosis

dento-alveolar syndesmosis
type of fibrous joint in which a peg like fibrous process stabilizes a tooth and provides proprioceptive information

106

cartilaginous joints

articulating structures are united by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
synchondroses
symphyses

107

primary cartilaginous joints

synchondroses
united by hyaline cartilage.
permit growth of the length of the bone and allow slight bending during early life until the epiphyseal plate converts to bone and epiphysis fuses with diaphysis

108

secondary cartilaginous joints

symphyses
strong, slightly mobile joints united by fibrocartilage

109

synovial joints

articular cavity is a potential space that contains synovial fluid
most common type
usually reinforced by accessory ligaments

110

synovial fluid

serves dual function of nourishing articular cartilage and lubricating joint surface

111

other distinguishing characteristics of synovial joints

fibrocartilaginous articular discs
menisci
present when articulating surfaces of bones are incongrous

112

articular arteries

arise from vessels around joint and feed it
anastomose (communicate) to form networks (peri-articular arterial anastomoses) which ensure a continuous blood supply

113

articular veins

communicating veins that accompany the arteries and like the arteries, are located in the joint capsule, mostly in the synovial membrane

114

articular nerves

in the distal parts of limbs, branches of cutaneous nerves supplying the overlying skin
otherwise, most are branches of nerves that supply the muscles that cross and therefore move the joint

115

Hilton law

nerves supplying a joint also supply the muscles moving the joint and the skin covering the attachments

116

pain fibers in synovial joints

numerous in the fibrous layer of the joint capsule and associated ligaments
synovial membrane relatively insensitive

117

types of synovial joints

pivot, ball and socket, plane, hinge, saddle, condyloid

118

pivot joint

uniaxial
rounded process of bone fits into a bony ligamentous socket, permitting rotation
atlanto-axial joint

119

ball and socket joint

multiaxial
rounded head fits into a concavity, permitting movement on several aces
hip joint

120

plane joint

usually uniaxial
permit gliding or sliding movements
acromioclavicular joint

121

hinge joint

uniaxial
permit flexion and extension only
elbow joint

122

saddle joint

biaxial
saddle shaped heads permit movement in two different planes
carpometacarpal joint

123

condyloid joint

biaxial
permit flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, circumduction
metacarpophalangeal joint

124

Muscle fibers

muscle cells
called so because long and narrow when relaxed
specialized contractile cells

125

Fascicles

associated connective tissue conveys nerve fibers and capillaries to muscle fibers as it binds them

126

skeletal muscle function

moves bones and other structures
static support
give form to body
provide heat

127

cardiac striated muscle function

forms most of walls of heart and adjacent parts of the great vessels

128

smooth muscle function

forms part of walls of most vessels and hollow organs
moves substances through viscera such as intestine and controls movement through blood vessels

129

structure of skeletal muscle

fleshy contractile portion (one or more heads or bellies) composed of skeletal striated muscle
noncontractile portion composed mainly of collagen bundles

130

collagen bundles of skeletal muscle

tendons: rounded
aponeuroses: flat sheets

131

length of a muscle

include bellies and tendons

132

pennate muscles

feather like in arrangement of their fascicles (fiber bundles)
unipennate, bipennate, multipennate

133

fusiform muscles

spindle shaped
round, thick belly, tapered ends

134

parallel muscles

fascicles lie parallel to long axis of muscle
flat muscles with parallel fibers often have aponeuroses

135

convergent muscles

broad attachment from which the fascicles converge to a single tendon

136

circular muscles

surround a body opening or orifice constricting it when contracted

137

digastric muscles

feature two bellies in series sharing a common intermediate tendon

138

shortening of muscles

when contract, shorten to about 70% of resting length
long parallel fascicles shorten the most

139

muscle power increases

as number of cells increases

140

most powerful muscles

shorter, wide pennate muscles

141

reflexive contraction

automatic and not voluntary
respiratory movements of the diaphragm
muscle stretch evokes reflexive contraction produced by tapping a tendon with a reflex hammer

142

tonic contraction

slight contraction (muscle tone) that does not produce movement or active resistance but gives the muscle firmness
assisting the stability of joints and the maintenence of posture

143

phasic contraction

isometric contractions: muscle length remains the same: no movement but muscle tension is increased above tonic levels
isotonic contractions: muscle changes length to produce movement

144

isotonic contractions

concentric contraction: muscle shortening
eccentric contraction: progressive relaxation of a contracted muscle

145

structural unit of a muscle

muscle fiber

146

endomysium

covers individual muscle fibers

147

perimysium

surrounds group of fibers

148

epimysium

entire muscle surrounded

149

functional unit of a muscle

motor unit: motor neuron and muscle fibers

150

prime mover or agonist

main muscle responsible for producing a specific movement of the body

151

fixators

steady the proximal parts of a limb while movements are occuring in distal parts

152

synergist

complements the action of prime movers
for example, by preventing movement of the intervening joint when a prime mover passes over more than one joint

153

antagonist

a muscle that opposes the action of a prime mover. as prime mover contracts, antagonist progressively relaxes, producing a smooth movement

154

myocardium

forms muscular wall of heart, made of cardiac striated muscle

155

smooth muscle

absence of microscopic striations
forms large part of middle coat or layer (tunica media) of the walls of most blood vessels and muscular part of wall of digestive tract and ducts
innervated by ANS
found in arrectors in skin and in the eyeball;

156

muscle testing

1. active: resist movements performed by examiner
2. examiner performs movements against resistance

157

electromyography

EMG
surface electrodes over a muscle and perform movements
tonus: baseline activity

158

compensatory hypertrophy

myocardium responds to increasing demands by increasing size of cells
smooth muscle cells also do so during pregnancy in uterus

159

hypertrophy

increase in size

160

hyperplasia

increase in number

161

pulmonary circulation

right heart propels low oxygen blood returned to it into the lungs where carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen

162

systemic circulation

oxygen rich blood returned to the left heart is pumped to the remainder of the body, exchanging oxygen and nutrients for carbon dioxide

163

order of blood vessels

arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, IVC, SVC

164

tunics of vessels of circulatory system

tunica intima: thin endothelial lining of vessels
tunica media: middle smooth muscle layer
tunica adventitia: outer connective tissue coat

165

conducting arteries

large elastic arteries
have many elastic layers in their walls
aorta and branches from arch of aorta
elasticity allows maintenence of blood pressure because return to normal between cardiac contractions

166

distributing arteries

medium muscular arteries
walls that contain mostly smooth muscle, circularly arranged
femoral artery
ability to decrease diameter regulates flow of blood to different parts of body

167

small arteries and arterioles

relatively narrow lumina and thick muscular walls
arterial pressure in vascular system regulated by degree of tonus in the smooth muscle of arteriolar walls

168

veins

return poorly oxygenated blood to heart from capillary beds
walls are thinner than those of companion arteries

169

venous plexuses

venules unite to form larger veins that usually form plexuses
dorsal venous arch of foot

170

medium veins

in limbs and other location where the flow of blood is opposed by pull of gravity with valves that permit blood to flow toward the heart but not in reverse direction

171

large veins

SVC and IVC
characterized by wide bundles of longitudinal smooth muscle and a well developed tunica adventitia

172

systemic veins

more variable than arteries and more frequently form anastomoses

173

vascular sheath

veins that accompany deep arteries (accompanying veins) surround them in a branching network and occupy a relatively unyielding vascular sheath with artery they accompany

174

anastomoses

communications between multiple branches of an artery provide numerous potentisl detous for blood flow

175

collateral circulation

ensures blood supply to structures distal to blockage

176

terminal arteries

arteries that do not anastomose with adjacent arteries

177

functional terminal arteries

arteries with ineffectual anastomoses
suppl segments of brain, liver, kidney, spleen and intestines

178

arteriosclerosis

hardening of arteries
group of diseases characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls

179

atherosclerosis

common form of arteriosclerosis associated with buildup of fat (cholesterol) in arterial walls

180

atheromatous plaque

calcium deposits form it, resulting in arterial narrowing and irregularity

181

varicose veins

abnormally swollen, twisted veins, most often seen in the legs
walls of veins lose their elasticity, become weak and dilate under pressure of supporting a column of blood against gravity
valve cusps do not meet or have been destroyed by inflammation. incompetent valves, column of blood ascending toward heart is unbroken, placing increased pressure on weakened walls of veins and exacerbating varicosities

182

capillaries

simple endothelial tubes connecting arterial and venous sides of circulation

183

capillary beds

networks between arterioles and venules

184

arteriovenous anastomoses (AV shunts)

sites of communications between small arteries and veins proximal to capillary beds like in fingers
permit blood to pass directly from arterial to venous side of circulation without passing through capillaries
numerous in skin, have impt role in conserving body heat

185

lymphatic system

provides for drainage of surplus tissue fluid and leaked plasma proteins to bloodstream and for removal of cellular debris and infection

186

lymph

surplus extracellular tissue fluid
clear and watery and similar in composition to blood plasma

187

lymphatic plexuses

networks of lymphatic capillaries that originate in extracellular spaces of most tissues

188

lymphatic vessels (lymphatics)

body wide network of thin walled vessels with abundant valves originating from lymphatic plexuses along which lymph nodes are located
occur almost everywhere blood capillaries are found except teeth, bone, bone marrow and entire CNS

189

lymph nodes

small masses of lymphatic tissue through which lymph is filtered on its way to venous system

190

lymphocytes

circulating cells of immune system that react against foreign materials

191

lymphoid organs

sits that produce lymphocytes
spleen, thymus, lymph nodes
walls of digestive tract
myeloid tissue in red bone marrow

192

right lymphatic duct

drains lymph from bodys right upper quadrant (right side of head, neck and thorax and entire right upper limb)
ends in right subclavian vein at its angle of juncton with right internal jugular vein at right venous angle

193

thoracic duct

drains lymph from reminder of body
begins in abdomen as cisterna chyli
ascends through thorax and enters junction of left internal jugular and left subclavian veins called left venous angle

194

lymphangitis

refer to secondary inflammation of lymphatic vessels
occurs during metastisis of cancer

195

lymphadenitis

refer to secondary inflammation of lymph nodes
occurs during metastisis of cancer

196

lymphedema

accumulation of interstitial fluid
lymph not drained from an area of body
if lymph nodes removed

197

additional functions of lymphatic system

absorption and transport of dietary fat through lacteals which receive chyle from intestine and convey it through thoracic duct to venous system
formation of defense mechanism for the body

198

lacteals

specialized lymphatic capillaries that receive absorbed fat