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Project

Lat. projectum or proiacere (to throw forward)

1

A definition of project management

Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing and managing resources for the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives.
A project is a temporary endeavor, having a defined beginning and end, undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, usually to bring about beneficial change or added value.

2

Project management is not

The management of the regular working processes
Organizationally structures due to hierarchy and the regular organization

3

Project management usually requires,
A project is specified by

To set up a project oriented team with a project leader.
- a start and an finish, a lifecycle (a beginning and an end with distinct phases in-between)
A budget with an associated cash-flow, activities which are unique and non-repetitive, use of resources from different departments which need separate co-ordination

4

Project knowledge areas

Project integration
Project scope management
Project time management
Project cost management
Project quality management
Project human resources management
Project communications management
Project risk management
Project procurement management

--> deliverable objectives in general: scope, time, cost, quality

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Project integration

Several knowledge areas brought together as planning-execution-control

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Project scope management

Includes all work required and only the work required

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Project time management

To ensure timely performance of the project

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Project cost management

Project to be completed within the approved budget, includes resource naming, cost estimates, cost budgeting, cash-flow and cost control

9

Project quality management

To satisfy the needs and fulfill the objectives, includes focused measurable objectives, quality planning, quality assurance and quality control

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Project human resources management

Most effective use of people, includes project organization, staff acquisition and training

11

Project communications management

Collection and sharing of information. Securing the decision process with management

12

Project risk management

Identifying, analyzing and responding to risk, on-going control

13

Project procurement management

To acquire goods and services from outside the team, organization, company. Procurement planning, source selection, contracts

14

Cost

Realistic planning of resources
Defining external costs as eg research, consultancy
Implementing on-going cost and resource control

15

Schedule

Realistic time frame defining milestones
Considering sub-projects and team-process
Securing management decision process
Consistent check of timing and delays

16

Performance

Measurable performance criteria
Top management support
Standardized instruments and processes

17

Project leader

One project leader, a tea with different background and know how ( a project is not embedded in the organization)

18

Outside consultants

Lawyers
Business consultancy

19

Abilities of a project manager

Ability to select, develop and motivate an operational team
Leadership and management ability
Ability to integrate stakeholders and drive management decisions
Operational flexibility
Ability to administer
Ability to plan, execute and decide
Ability to monitor and control
Understand the environment and adapts to changes
Ability to keep the boss and client happy

20

Decision making continuum

Autocratic boss makes the decisions
Isolated
Informed consultative
Laisser-faire, democratic
Democratic, team makes the decision

21

Action-centered leadership (original leadership training at sand hurst military academy)

Hierarchy of needs:
Individuals first for mayor effectiveness , otherwise unlikely to contribute

Individual to work together as a team, with a single point of responsibility

Individuals and team to deliver the task corresponding to the projects ' objective

Performance: ability plus commitment

22

Herzberg's motivation and hygiene factors

Dissatisfaction and demotivation -> not dissatisfied but not motivated -> positive satisfaction and motivation

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Hygiene factors

Company policies
Quality of supervision
Relations with others
Personal life
Rate of pay
Job security
Working conditions

24

Motivational factors

Achievement
Career advancement
Personal growth
Job interest
Recognition
Responsibility

25

Management of conflict

Arbitration (Schlichtung) for conflicts which are apparent and specific, not continual

Coordination device: creating a position between the conflicting parties e.g. CMO between business divisions

Negotiations : conflicting parties negotiate

Separation: conflict between individuals

Withdrawal and neglect: retreating from a conflict situation to cool down

Rules and regulations: should follow negotiation and agreement

Compromising vs. confrontation: common agreement

Problem solving: treating conflict as a technical problem, changing perspective

26

A leader is also

A professional expert
A diplomat
An administrator
A negotiator
A motivator
Skillful delegator
A decision maker

27

Project failure

Communication
Failure to understand stakeholders' specific interests eg environment, women ..
Competition is faster, more innovative
Scope of work is under-estimated
Objectives and expectations are not clear
Motivation and organizations is lacking (NGO's no payment)
IT- projects- only 18% completed within budgets, 50% overrun their budget, 30% are abandoned due to expensiveness
Poor estimating
Insufficient reviews and control
Changes in the organization- new decision makers in global organizations

28

The decisive steps in project management

Initiative
naming
Executing
Closing

29

Initiative

Requirements from customer
Requirement analysis
SOW- statement of work formulation project approval or project stop