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Flashcards in Introduction Deck (57):
0

Obligate intracellular but acellular parasites of plants, naked RNA, no human diseases

Viroids

1

Jumping genes

Transposons

2

Appearance of vacuolated neurons with loss of function and the lack of an immune response or inflammation

Spongiform encephalopathies

3

Smallest bacteria

Mycoplasma sp

4

Largest bacteria

Thiomargarita namibiensis

5

All have a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan except

Mycoplasma

7

Outer membrane of gram negative bacteria contains

Endotoxin/LPS

8

Procedure in Gram staining

Primary Stain - Violet
Mordant - Iodine
Decolorizing Agent - Acetone
Counterstain - Safranin

9

Culture for Mycobacteria

Acid Fast Stain

10

Culture for Spirochetes

Dark field Microscopy

11

Culture for Legionella

Silver Stain

12

Culture for Chlamydia and Ricketssia

Gram/Tissue Stain
Inclusion bodies

13

Clostridium perfringens

Egg yolk

14

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Tellurite

15

Group D Strep

Bile esculin

16

Staphylococci

Mannitol salts

17

N meningitidis
N gonorrhoea from sterile sites

Chocolate

18

N gonorrhea from sterile sites

Thayer Martin

19

H influenza

Chocolate + Factor V and X

20

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Lowenstein Jonsen

21

Vibrio cholerae

Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts TCBS

22

Bordetella pertussis

Bordet Gengou

23

Legionella pneumophilia

Charcoal yeast extract

24

Campylobacter, Helicobacter

Skirrows, Campy

25

Borrelia burgdorferi

Barbour Stoenner Kelly

26

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Eaton

27

Pseudomonas aeroginosa

Cetrimide

28

Unique to gram positive organisms, for antigenic deteminant

Techoic acid

29

All gram positive bacteria have NO endotoxin except

Listeria monocytogenes

30

Completely dependent on oxygen for ATP generation

Obligate aerobes

31

Use fermentation but can tolerate low amounts of oxygen

Microaerophiles

32

Utilize oxygen if it is present, but can use fermentation in its absence

Facultative anaerobe

33

Exclusively anaerobic, but insensitive to the presence of oxygen

Aerotolerant anaerobes

34

Cannot grow in the presence of oxygen because they lack the three important enzymes

Obligate anaerobes

35

Degree of organism pahogenecity

Virulence

36

Examples of Obligate Aerobes (9)

Nocardia
Neisseria
Pseudomonas
Mycobacteria
Bordetella Brucella B cereus
Legionella Leptospira

37

Examples of Obligate Anaerobes (3)

Actinomyces
Bacteroides
Clostridium

38

Examples of Facultative Anaerobe (4)

Streptococcus
Spirochetes - Borrela, Treponema
Campylobacter
Helicobacter

39

Bacterial DNA is
Human nuclear DNA is

Circular
Linear

40

All bacteria capsules are composed of polysaccharide except

Bacillus anthracis

41

Spore has keratin like coat called

Dipicolinic acid

42

Enumerate the Three Spirochetes

Leptospira
Treponema
Borrelia

43

Toxic proteins produced by ceratin bacteria that are lethal for other bacteria

Bacteriocins

44

Aerotolerant anaerobes

Propionibacterium
Lactobacillus

45

Facultative anaerobes

Mycoplasma
Staphylococcus
Bacillus anthracis
Listeria
Corynebacterium

46

Occurs when normal flora occupy receptor sites preventing pathogen from binding

Colonization resistance

47

Normal flora in the
Skin
Nose
Mouth
Dental plaque
Colon (2)
Vagina (3)

Staph epidermidis
Staph aureus
Viridans strep
Strep mutans
Bacteroides E coli
Lactobacillus acidophilus E coli Strep agalactiae

48

Bacteria with IgA Protease (4)

Strep pneumoniae
H influenza
Neisseria meningitidis
Neisseria goborrhoeae

49

Destroys both neutropholic leukocytes and macrophages

Leukocidin
PV Leukocidin in Staph aureus

50

All exotoxins are heat labile except

Staphylococcal enterotoxin

51

Culture for Salmonella and Shigella

Xylose-Lysine-Deoxycholate XLD

52

Culture for Leptospira interrogans

Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris EMJH/MPL1/Fletchers

53

Antibiotics that are excellent with or without inflammation (8)

Sulfonamides
Chloramphenicol
Trimethoprim
Metronidazole
Rifampin
Isoniazid
Fluconazole
Flucytosine

54

Antiobiotics that are good only eit inflammation

Meropenem
Cephalosporins
Aztreonam
Ciprofloxacin
Vancomycin
Imipenem + cilastatin
Penicillins

55

Antibiotics that are minimal or not good even with inflammation

Aminoglycosides
Tetracyclines
Lincosamides
Macrolides

56

Antibiotics that cannot pass even with inflammation

Polymixins
1st and 2nd Cephalosporins
Amphotericin B

57

Largest medically important bacteria

Borrelia burgdorferi